# Electric Power Systems

lelec2520  2020-2021  Louvain-la-Neuve

Electric Power Systems
Due to the COVID-19 crisis, the information below is subject to change, in particular that concerning the teaching mode (presential, distance or in a comodal or hybrid format).
5 credits
30.0 h + 30.0 h
Q1
Teacher(s)
Language
English
Prerequisites
Students must have the following skills: knowledge and practical application of the theory of electrical circuits and electromechanical converters, as covered in the courses LELEC1370 and LELEC1310
Main themes
• Generalities about the generation, transmission, distribution, storage and end-use of electric power and their respective developments,
• Structure and architectures of electric power systems ,
• Modelling and calculation of electric power systems in steady state and fault conditions ( short circuit )
• Questions related to the planning and operation of electric power systems (frequency and power control, voltage control, protection, ... )
• Introduction to Smart Grids
Aims
 At the end of this learning unit, the student is able to : 1 In view of the LO frame of reference of the "Master Electrical Engineering", this course contributes to the development, acquisition and evaluation of the following learning outcomes: AA1.1, AA1.2, AA1.3 AA2.1, AA2.2 AA3.3 AA6.1 Specifically, at the end of the course, students will be able to: 1. Architecture of electrical systems: Describe and explain the main features, functionality and procedures of public electricity transmission and distribution networks and industrial distribution networks 2. Modelling tools and calculation: Establish and use the equivalent circuit of a symmetrical three-phase network with or without neutral, Explain the principles of the calculation in relative units (per unit) and use them as part of the resolution of numerical problems, Explain and interpret the physical components of Fortescue Use the Fortescue components to analyze situations and solve problems relating to the operation of unbalanced networks 3. Power grids components: Describe and explain the operating principles of transformers, their coupling modes, their conditions of use in parallel. Describe, explain and use their equivalent circuits, Explain the physical bases and principles for calculating primary and secondary parameters of overhead lines; explain the PI equivalent scheme of power lines and its simplified versions, Explain the physical principles of the complex power transmission on a power line, the notions of characteristic impedance and natural power, Describe and explain the phasor diagram of a generator connected to a power grid, Explain the concepts of gross and net power produced by a generator; calculate the active and reactive power exchanged between a generator and the network to which it is connected through a coupling transformer. Use all of these concepts to analyze practical situations and solve problems (numerical exercises). 4. Design and operation of power systems: Explain the fundamentals of computing power flow in a meshed network and manually apply them in simple situations, Analyze and interpret the results of a calculation of power flow obtained using specialized software tools Explain the different voltage control techniques, discuss the criteria for choosing a proper technique in a given situation, solve problems related to voltage control, Explain the principles of frequency primary control and secondary load-frequency control and apply them in practical situations, Explain the basic principles of tertiary control of the generation of electrical energy (economic dispatching) and apply them in simple practical situations, Manually calculate balanced and unbalanced short circuit (fault) currents in simple situations, Explain the basic principles of the protection of transmission and distribution networks and apply them in practical situations. Transversal learning outcomes: Structure, detail and present an engineering calculation report Use professional software tools ("commercial" software)
Content
• Electricity as energy carrier, architecture of power systems, voltage systems (continuous alternating ¬) per unit system, component systems (Fortescue, Clarke),
• Modelling: three-phase transformers, transmission and distribution links (lines, cables), generators (steady-state, operating range, excitation systems, models for calculating short circuits currents),
• Power Flow in a meshed power network, state estimator,
• Voltage control,
• Frequency and power control, tertiary control of electricity generation, notions of managing a set of generation units
• Electrical power systems planning concepts
• Unbalanced and faulty operation (short circuit), power grids protections
Teaching methods

Due to the COVID-19 crisis, the information in this section is particularly likely to change.

• Lectures
• Practical sessions (supervised exercise sessions).
• Project type exercise to be performed by groups of two students, based on the use of software for calculating and analyzing networks. (This exercise is evaluated and taken into account in the final evaluation grade.)
Due to health constraints, the activities for this course will be organized simultaneously face-to-face and remotely (using a webconference tool). The practical details are specified on the Mooldle platform.
Evaluation methods

Due to the COVID-19 crisis, the information in this section is particularly likely to change.

Students are assessed during a written and/or oral examination on both the theory and concepts and the discussion of practical situations (practical industrial case study, numerical exercises).
A small project is proposed during the semester and is evaluated. It counts for a quarter of the points in the final grade, provided that the student has obtained at least 50% of the points for the exam.
In case the student does not obtain at least 50% of the points for the exam, the final grade is equal to the grade obtained for the exam.
See the Moodle platform for more details.
N.B. Depending on the health situation, the exam could be a remote one.
Other information
According to the opportunities and practical availability, the course can be completed by a technical visit (eg, visiting the training center ELIA, Belgian transmission high voltage grid operator, and the national dispatching.)
Online resources
Slides, exercices and solutions via Moodle
http://moodleucl.uclouvain.be/course/view.php?id=7783
Bibliography
• Transparents du cours
• Recueil de documentation
• Ouvrage de référence : Power system Analysis - T.K. Nagsarkar, M.S. Sukhija, Oxford University Press, 2007
Faculty or entity
Force majeure
Teaching methods
Distance learning (lectures and practical sessions) over the Teams platform
Evaluation methods
Students are assessed during an oral examination on both the theory and concepts and the discussion of practical situations (practical industrial case study, numerical exercises).
By default, the exam is held in person. Nevertheless, it can be organized remotely e.g. over the Teams platform:
- for all students, if the health situation requires it,
- for students who may argue, prior to the exam, that they are unable to participate on site. This has to be certified by a quarantine certificate or a "return form" from the SPF Foreign Affairs.
A small project is proposed during the semester and is evaluated. It counts for a quarter of the points in the final grade, provided that the student has obtained at least 50% of the points for the exam.
In case the student does not obtain at least 50% of the points for the exam, the final grade is equal to the grade obtained for the exam.

#### Programmes / formations proposant cette unité d'enseignement (UE)

Title of the programme
Sigle
Credits
Prerequisites
Aims
Master [120] in Electrical Engineering

Master [120] in Electro-mechanical Engineering