Students will mainly be assessed on the basis of individual work (e.g. reading, consultation of databases and bibliographic references, writing monographs and reports, presentation of seminars, dissertation and work placement). Where necessary, students will also be assessed on how much they have learned from lectures. As far as possible, there will be continuous assessment, including regular ‘open book examinations’. Certain activities will not be given a precise mark but will be officially certified. Assessment of the dissertation is in two stages : a ‘progress report’ at the end of the first year of the Master and the final presentation.