Learning outcomes

Master in Forests and Natural Areas students must endeavour to diagnose and solve complex and original issues in bioengineering through a multidisciplinary approach in order to develop and implement innovative and sustainable solutions.

This Master’s programme aims to train experts in the field of management, conservation and the responsible and sustainable use of forests and natural spaces in multiple ecological and socio-economic contexts.
The future bioengineers acquire the knowledge and skills required to become:
• professionals able to tackle and diagnose problems related to the management and use of natural resources and forests and to provide operational solutions: sustainable management of ecosystems, management of natural areas and forests, development of forest-wood resources;
• scientists able to understand complex processes on different spatial and temporal scales, used to multidisciplinary approaches and able to collaborate with other specialists;
• innovators tasked with developing new methods of managing natural environments and forests with a view to ensuring the sustainability of goods, resources and services from ecosystems, in the context of climate change and changing social demands.

Highly versatile and multidisciplinary in character, the course dispensed by the Faculty of Biological, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering focuses on acquiring skills which combine theory and practice to train "bioengineers" mastering a broad base of scientific and technological knowledge and skills allowing them to adopt an integrated approach to biological, agricultural and environmental systems.


On successful completion of this programme, each student is able to :

1. To explore a body of knowledge (knowledge, methods and techniques, models and processes) in natural and human sciences which serves as the foundation from which to operate with expertise in the field of forest sciences.

1.1 To build an advanced knowledge base in the field of forest science and more specifically in the following disciplines[1].
· Soil and water sciences
· Ecology
· Wood sciences
· Dendrology
· Geomatics applied to the environment
· Statistics and data analysis
· Economics of natural and forestry resources
· Sustainable development law
1.2 To build highly specialised (cutting-edge) scientific knowledge in one of the following[2] bioengineering specialisations:
· Ecosystems and biodiversity
· Forest and society
· Tropical forestry and development
· Information analysis and management in biological engineering
1.3 To master procedural skills in conducting experiments[3] in a natural or controlled environment, and in the observation and monitoring of forests and natural systems at different scales as well as the specific techniques related to their choice of specialisation.
1.4 To apply their knowledge critically to tackles a complex problem in the field of forest sciences, by incorporating processes at different scales ranging from the living organism scale, to landscape and biosphere.
1.5 To apply multiple strands of knowledge to resolve a multidisciplinary problem in the forest sciences field in order to develop relevant and innovative solutions.

[1] Refers to the choice of the Master (core subjects and professional focus). The knowledge of some of these disciplines will have been partially acquired in the Bachelor's degree (in the advanced minor).
[2] Refers to the option / module choice in the Master.
[3] Refers to mastering all the laboratory and field techniques used for the characterisation or monitoring of a system.

2. To explore an integrated body of "engineering and management knowledge" which serves as the foundation from which to operate with expertise in the forest science field.

2.1 To build an advanced knowledge base (e.g.: concepts, laws, technologies) and tools (e.g. modelling, programming) in engineering sciences:
• Geomatics applied to the environment
• Hydrology
• Applied soil sciences
• Dendrometry: forest resource inventory
• Topometry
• Ecological and forestry diagnosis
• Statistics and data analysis
• Forest engineering and wood transformation
• Temperate and tropical forestry
• Management of forests and natural areas
• Land management
2.2 To build and master highly specialised knowledge and tools in one of the following bioengineering specialisations:
• Ecosystems and biodiversity
• Forest and society
• Tropical forestry and development
• Information analysis and management in agricultural engineering
2.3 To master the operational use of specialised tools in engineering sciences (e.g.: systems analysis, statistical analysis, programming, modelling, etc.)[1]:
• Measurement techniques
• Statistical data analysis
• Specific tools in relation to the choice of specialisation
2.4 To activate and apply their knowledge of engineering with a critical mind and using a quantitative approach to tackle a complex problem in the field of forest science by incorporating long-term processes at different scales ranging from the tree to landscape and biosphere.
2.5 To locate and understand how companies and organisations operate, including the role of the different players, their financial and social realities and responsibilities and the challenges and constraints which characterise their environment.

[1] The tools are explained on the basis of the radioscopy of the programme and courses.

3. To design and execute a research project, implementing an analytical scientific and, if applicable, systematic approach, to further understanding of an original research problem in their field of specialisation, incorporating several disciplines.

This skill set will develop throughout the 5 years. Amongst others it requires the use of a set of skills as described below. These skills correspond in fact to the different stages of the scientific approach.
The majority of these skills are developed in the Bachelor and Master programmes, with differentiation predominately on 3 levels:
- the level of detail and complexity applied to the scientific problem/research studied;
- the degree of innovation shown by the student;
- the degree of autonomy demonstrated by the student throughout the process.

3.1 To summarise the state of knowledge on a complex research problem which relates to their choice of specialisation: to research information, to select and validate its reliability based on the nature of the source of the information and comparing several sources.
3.2 To specify and define the research question.
3.3 To examine the research question using conceptual abstraction and formulate hypotheses.
3.4 To develop and implement a rigorous methodology to answer the research question.
3.5 To master and apply statistical data analysis tools in the context of a complex scientific issue.
3.6 To analyse and interpret the results to produce a substantiated critique on a complex scientific question.
3.7 To demonstrate an ability to summarise and formulate conclusions on a complex scientific question.
3.8 In each of the skills mentioned above, to demonstrate rigour, precision and the critical thinking essential for any scientific method.
3.9 To demonstrate innovation in at least one of the skills mentioned above.

4. To formulate and resolve a complex engineering problem in the forest sciences field, related to new situations presenting a degree of uncertainty and by using a systematic approach to develop relevant sustainable and innovative solutions.

4.1 To strategically differentiate the key elements from the less critical elements relating to a complex forest engineering problem, in order to define and determine the field of action for this problem.
4.2 To identify the knowledge acquired and that to be acquired to resolve the complex forest engineering problem.
4.3 To analyse a complex forest engineering problem according to a systematic and multidisciplinary approach in order to carry out diagnostics and formulate the specifications.
4.4 To demonstrate an ability for conceptual abstraction and formalisation in analysing and resolving the complex forest engineering problem.
4.5 To develop scientifically and technologically relevant and innovative solutions, through a multidisciplinary (integration and articulation of knowledge) and quantitative approach, making it possible to develop products, systems, processes or services in the field of agricultural sciences.
4.6 To test solutions and evaluate their impact in relation to an economic, environmental, social and cultural context.
4.7 To formulate concrete and responsible recommendations to encourage sustainable development in relation to the efficient operational and sustainable implementation of the solutions proposed.

5. To design and implement a multidisciplinary project, alone and in a team, with the stakeholders concerned while taking the objectives into account and incorporating the scientific, technical, environmental, economic and human factors.

The graduate must be able to manage a project alone and in a team, not only the scientific and technological dimensions but also the financial and, if applicable social aspects and with a degree of complexity representative of typical professional scenarios.

5.1 To know and understand the principles and factors of group dynamics (including the constructive role of conflict).
5.2 To know and understand the project management process (project cycles): formulation and definition of the project, project management, monitoring and evaluation of the project.
5.3 To situate a multidisciplinary project within its environment and identify the issues, constraints and stakeholders and to clearly define its objectives.
5.4 To plan and develop all the stages of a multidisciplinary project, alone and in a team, and to work together after having allocated the tasks.
5.5 To involve key players at appropriate stages in the process.
5.6 To work within a team and collaborate effectively to achieve common objectives.
5.7 To take and assume the decisions required for the effective project management either alone or in a team in order to achieve the intended objectives.
5.8 To recognise and take into consideration the diversity of opinions and ways of thinking of team members and to manage conflict constructively to work towards a consensual decision.
5.9 To lead a team (demonstrate leadership): to motivate team members, to develop a collaborative climate, to guide them to cooperate in the achievement of a common objective, to manage conflict.

6. To communicate, interact and convince in a professional manner, in French and English at level C1 (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages published by the Council of Europe), both verbally and in writing, adapting to their conversational partners and the context.

6.1 To understand and use scientific articles and advanced technical documents in French and English.
6.2 To communicate information, ideas, solutions and conclusions as well as the knowledge and underlying principles, in a clearly structured, substantiated, concise and comprehensive way (as appropriate) both verbally and in writing according to the standards of communication specific to the context and by adapting their presentation according to the level of expertise of the audience.
6.3 To develop logic diagrams to concisely pose complex global questions.
6.4 To communicate the state of knowledge in a specific field concisely and critically.
6.5 To communicate results and conclusions, and to support a message, in an appropriate manner using scientific tables, graphs and diagrams.
6.6 To communicate effectively and respectfully with various stakeholders, demonstrating listening skills, empathy and assertiveness.
6.7 To argue and convince: to understand the points of view of various stakeholders and present their arguments accordingly.
6.8 To master the IT and technological tools essential for professional communication.
6.9 To learn English to level C1 according to the European Framework.

7. To act critically and responsibly by taking account of sustainable development issues and operating with a humanistic outlook.

7.1 To demonstrate intellectual independence of thought, to examine knowledge and professional practices and trends critically.
7.2 To make decisions and act in society with respect for ethical values and in compliance with laws and conventions.
7.3 To make decisions and act responsibly by factoring in sustainable development values.
7.4 To make decisions and act with respect for humanistic values, cultural openness and solidarity, especially in North–South relations.
7.5 To assume professional responsibilities and act in a managerial capacity vis-à-vis their colleagues.

8. To demonstrate independence and be proactive in acquiring new knowledge and developing new skills in order to adapt to changing or uncertain situations and to grow, to build a professional project within a continuing development approach.

The majority of these skills are not developed exclusively through specific activities, but rather as a result of the multiple and diverse situations encountered throughout the course, the educational programmes and the way in which it is run, as well as through the university environment.

8.1 To manage their work independently: to set priorities, anticipate and plan all the activities in time, including in the face of changing, uncertain or urgent situations.
8.2 To manage stress and frustrations in urgent, changing, inconsistent or uncertain situations.
8.3 To question and know themself: to undergo self-assessment, by analysing their successes and failures, to identify strengths and weaknesses and their personal performance in relation to the context.
8.4 To grow personally and professionally: to build a professional project in line with their own values and aspirations, to manage their motivation and involvement in bringing the project to fruition, to persevere in complex situations.
8.5 To independently identify and absorb new knowledge and skills essential for learning to understand new contexts quickly.
8.6 To commit to the lifelong learning which will allow them to grow socially and professionally.