Veille sur le COVID-19

Planetary health & COVID-19: A multi-perspective investigation

11 août 2022

One Health. 2022 Jul 22:100416. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can be characterized as an outcome of degraded planetary health drivers in complex systems and has wide-reaching implications in social, economic and environmental realms. To understand the drivers of planetary health that have influences of emergence and spread of COVID-19 and their implications for sustainability systems thinking and narrative literature review is deployed. In particular, sixteen planetary health drivers are identified, i.e., population growth, climate change, agricultural intensification, urbanization, land use and land cover change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, globalization, wildlife trade, wet markets, non-planetary health diet, antimicrobial resistance, air pollution, water stress, poverty and weak governance. The implications of COVID-19 for planetary health are grouped in six categories: social, economic, environmental, technological, political, and public health. The implications for planetary health are then judged to see the impacts with respect to sustainable development goals (SDGs). The paper indicates that sustainable development goals are being hampered due to the planetary health implications of COVID-19.

PMID:35892119 | PMC:PMC9304035 | DOI:10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416

An argument for pandemic risk management using a multidisciplinary One Health approach to governance: an Australian case study

11 août 2022

Global Health. 2022 Jul 26;18(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4.

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant global impact. However, COVID-19 is just one of several high-impact infectious diseases that emerged from wildlife and are linked to the human relationship with nature. The rate of emergence of new zoonoses (diseases of animal origin) is increasing, driven by human-induced environmental changes that threaten biodiversity on a global scale. This increase is directly linked to environmental drivers including biodiversity loss, climate change and unsustainable resource extraction. Australia is a biodiversity hotspot and is subject to sustained and significant environmental change, increasing the risk of it being a location for pandemic origin. Moreover, the global integration of markets means that consumption trends in Australia contributes to the risk of disease spill-over in our regional neighbours in Asia-Pacific, and beyond. Despite the clear causal link between anthropogenic pressures on the environment and increasing pandemic risks, Australia's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, like most of the world, has centred largely on public health strategies, with a clear focus on reactive management. Yet, the span of expertise and evidence relevant to the governance of pandemic risk management is much wider than public health and epidemiology. It involves animal/wildlife health, biosecurity, conservation sciences, social sciences, behavioural psychology, law, policy and economic analyses to name just a few.The authors are a team of multidisciplinary practitioners and researchers who have worked together to analyse, synthesise, and harmonise the links between pandemic risk management approaches and issues in different disciplines to provide a holistic overview of current practice, and conclude the need for reform in Australia. We discuss the adoption of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary 'One Health' approach to pandemic risk management in Australia. A key goal of the One Health approach is to be proactive in countering threats of emerging infectious diseases and zoonoses through a recognition of the interdependence between human, animal, and environmental health. Developing ways to implement a One Health approach to pandemic prevention would not only reduce the risk of future pandemics emerging in or entering Australia, but also provide a model for prevention strategies around the world.

PMID:35883185 | DOI:10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4

Statement by WHO’s Regional Director on COVID-19 and monkeypox

11 août 2022

26 July 2022 – Good morning from WHO’s Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean in Cairo and welcome to this media briefing on COVID-19 and monkeypox.  

Firstly, let me introduce my friend and colleague Dr Maha El Rabbat, Professor of Public Health, member of the African Union Commission for Africa Recovery, and former WHO Director-General Special Envoy on COVID-19 for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. She has been a great support to WHO and the Region throughout the pandemic.  It will be my pleasure to provide you with the regional update on COVID-19 and monkeypox; Dr Rabbat will provide the global perspective.  

Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region, almost 22.5 million confirmed cases and more than 344 000 deaths have been reported as of 24 July 2022. Twenty-one (21) out of 22 countries reported the detection of at least one variant of concern and the detection of the Omicron variant of concern has been reported by 17 countries. 

Over the past 5 weeks, the Eastern Mediterranean Region continued to observe an increase in COVID-19 cases and deaths because of the circulation of variants and the easing or lifting of public health and social measures in most countries. We anticipate this surge to continue for a few more weeks.  

Vaccination efforts in the Region are ongoing, but vaccine coverage is still lagging behind WHO’s global vaccinations targets of 70% of all populations vaccinated and 100% coverage of priority groups, such as health care workers, the elderly and people with underlying health conditions. 

As of 18 July 2022, only 45%

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Belief and Recall of Nicotine as Therapeutic for COVID-19 May Undermine E-Cigarette Quitting Behavior

20 juillet 2022
Health Education &Behavior, Ahead of Print.
We examine the proposition that misinformation about the therapeutic potential of nicotine to prevent or treat COVID-19 may lead to relapse among attempted e-cigarette quitters. A sample of N = 507 e-cigarette ever-users who reported at least one quit attempt in the past year were surveyed in June of 2021 for recall and belief in several claims about COVID-19 and nicotine. Participants who recalled and believed at least one misinformation claim were significantly more likely to have relapsed than those who did not recall or believe such claims. These differences remained robust to regression analysis adding demographic covariates and accounting for continuous measurement of recall and belief. Misinformation about e-cigarette use is reaching young adult e-cigarette users who are trying to quit. The implications of these findings merit further research to characterize potential barriers to successful e-cigarette cessation.

Differences in Beliefs and Behaviors Related to COVID-19 Prevention Among Adult Current and Former Smokers and With and Without A Cancer Diagnosis

20 juillet 2022
American Journal of Health Promotion, Ahead of Print.
PurposeStudy aims included assessing differences in beliefs/behaviors about COVID-19 prevention among current and former smokers with and without cancer.DesignA cross-sectional survey about COVID-19 beliefs/behaviors was administered from June 2020 to January 2021.SettingSurvey conducted online via Qualtrics from June 2020 to January 2021.SubjectsParticipants were current (n = 101) and former (n = 102) smokers with and without cancer.MeasuresQuestions were related to beliefs about efficacy of and engagement in behaviors for COVID-19 prevention.ResultsResults from logistic regressions displayed that individuals with cancer were more likely to indicate using hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol was ineffective (OR = .12, 95% CI: [.02, .65]) and avoided public transportation (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: [1.04, 3.28]) compared to those without cancer. Former smokers were more likely to indicate taking vitamin C was effective (OR = .45, 95% CI: [.22, .93]) and rinsing your mouth with salt water (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: [1.02, 3.50]) was ineffective compared to current smokers. Current smokers were more likely to indicate not smoking was effective compared to former smokers (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: [1.13, 4.24]).ConclusionsCounters to COVID-19 misinformation may need to be tailored to different at-risk groups based on differential beliefs and behaviors.

Experiences of suffering among nursing professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic: A descriptive qualitative study

18 juillet 2022

Appl Nurs Res. 2022 Aug;66:151603. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2022.151603. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Healthcare professionals have played a fundamental role in managing and controlling the COVID-19 health crisis. They are exposed to high levels of suffering, trauma, uncertainty, and powerlessness in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore and understand experiences of suffering among primary care and hospital care nurses during the COVID-19 health crisis.

DESIGN: This is a descriptive qualitative study. Between March and April 2021, 19 in-depth interviews were carried out with nurses at health and social care facilities and hospitals in southern Spain. ATLAS.ti 9.0 software was used for discourse analysis.

RESULTS: Nurses reported that they had experienced suffering during their work in the pandemic. The main causes suggested were direct contact with patients' suffering and organisational difficulties. The repercussions are in emotional dimension and physical deterioration and social isolation.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Given the circumstances, programmes to promote healthy, compassion-based behaviours and changes to the way in which professionals' suffering is handled must be implemented by healthcare facility managers. Nursing leaders should consider the management of suffering as a matter of the first order, both from the ethical point of view and the business profitability and make compassionate leadership.

PMID:35840275 | DOI:10.1016/j.apnr.2022.151603

The COVID-19 pandemic from a One Health perspective

14 juillet 2022

Rev Med Suisse. 2022 Jul 13;18(790):1386-1389. doi: 10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386.

ABSTRACT

The "One Health" approach is essential to better understand and manage a pandemic of animal origin. Sensitive geopolitical considerations seem to hamper the investigations into the origin of the pandemic, but everything points to the Rhinolophus bat as the starting point of this devastating pandemic. Through a phenomenon of reverse zoonosis, several hundred cases of contamination of animals by SARS-CoV-2 have been identified worldwide, involving about twenty species of mammals. The virus has also passed from animals to humans in the case of infected mink farms in Denmark or through contact with hamsters in Hong Kong. For the development of vaccines and treatments and to help detect COVID-19 in train stations or airports, the animal has confirmed its role as a valuable auxiliary resource for humans in the fight against the pandemic.

PMID:35822747 | DOI:10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386

COVID 19 pandemic: Impact of changes experienced on social workers' professional quality of life in Singapore

14 juillet 2022

Soc Work Health Care. 2022 Jul 12:1-25. doi: 10.1080/00981389.2022.2092582. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has impacted all spheres of life massively. Among the emerging studies on the psychosocial impact of the pandemic, few studies look specifically at how social workers are impacted. To understand this gap, this study surveyed 337 social workers. The findings showed that changes experienced in the workplace were enormous and caused secondary traumatic stress while engendering compassion satisfaction among social workers, but the presence of social support moderated to keep the secondary traumatic stress at bay. Resilience mediated association between social and workplace support and compassion fatigue. Social support seemed to have the largest effect on reducing stress through resilience. Workplace support also helped mitigate burnout. In conclusion, continued social and workplace support will be key to supporting social workers during a pandemic.

PMID:35819057 | DOI:10.1080/00981389.2022.2092582

Vaccination de base contre la COVID-19 et consolidation périodique de l’immunité

22 juin 2022

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Cet avis vise à définir le nombre de doses qui constituent une « vaccination de base contre la COVID-19 », c’est-à-dire le nombre de doses qu’un individu devrait avoir reçu pour développer une réponse immunitaire satisfaisante, réponse qui pourra ensuite être consolidée lors des campagnes périodiques de vaccination.

Vaccination contre l’influenza et la COVID-19 à l’automne 2022

21 juin 2022

3219-vaccination-influenza-covid-19-auto

Le but de cet avis scientifique est d’émettre des recommandations concernant la vaccination contre l’influenza et contre la COVID-19 à l’automne 2022, notamment les groupes à cibler et le moment optimal pour les vacciner.

Revue rapide de la littérature scientifique sur le fardeau de la COVID-19 et les facteurs associés à la gravité de la maladie chez les enfants de 0 à 4 ans

21 juin 2022

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Comme des vaccins contre la COVID-19 pourraient être homologués et rendus disponibles prochainement pour les enfants de 0 à 4 ans, il apparaît important de connaître le fardeau de la COVID‑19 et les facteurs associés à la gravité de la maladie dans ce groupe d’âge.

Professional Quality of Life in Intensive Care Unit Professionals during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Observational Cross-sectional Study

21 juin 2022

Indian J Crit Care Med. 2022 May;26(5):604-612. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24212.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has significant positive and negative impacts on the professional life of intensive care unit (ICU) professionals. This study was conducted to evaluate compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in ICU professionals and to study demographic and occupational variables related to them.

METHODS: This prospective observational study was undertaken on ICU professionals involved in direct care of critically ill COVID-19 patients. The online questionnaire consisting of demographic, work-related parameters, and professional quality of life scale version 5 (ProQOL 5) was sent to 1,080 ICU healthcare workers. The subgroups of ProQOL 5, CS, BO, and STS were calculated and compared across study parameters. Linear regression was performed to evaluate variables which were independently associated with ProQOL.

RESULTS: The response rate in the present study was 39.8%, and after evaluation, 320 responses were found eligible for final analysis. There was predominance of average levels of CS, BO, and STS. Female gender, contractual job, lesser work experience, greater workload, and COVID-19 infection in close acquittance of participants were factors observed to independently associated with increase in negative aspects of ProQOL (BO and STS). Further, increase in duty hours and COVID-19 infection in close social circle were observed to independently decrease positive aspects (CS).

CONCLUSION: This study shows that despite majority of respondents reporting moderate levels BO and STS, CS is maintained during the COVID-19 crisis. The identification of risk factors is vital to support ICU professionals by targeted interventions.

HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Kerai S, Doda P, Saxena KN. Professional Quality of Life in Intensive Care Unit Professionals during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Observational Cross-sectional Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(5):604-612.

PMID:35719452 | PMC:PMC9160612 | DOI:10.5005/jp-journals-10071-24212

Coping with COVID-19: Survey data assessing psychological distress to COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy with measures of Theory of Planned Behavior, mindfulness, compassion, cultural orientation, and pandemic fatigue

21 juin 2022

Data Brief. 2022 Jun 14:108390. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2022.108390. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic extends into another year, the causes and consequences of pandemic fatigue and vaccine hesitancy have become prominent concerns. This dataset contains MTurk survey responses from 658 vaccinated USA samples indicating: (a) pandemic fatigue and psychological distress (physical and trauma symptoms); (b) delays in receiving medical care due to COVID-19 restrictions; (c) vaccine-related behavior and beliefs (type of vaccine and vaccine hesitancy), and (d) COVID-19 preventive health behaviors. Several predictor variables were also collected including: (a) demographic variables; (b) COVID-19 health risk factors; (c) perceived susceptibility to disease and intolerance of uncertainty; (d) attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control about COVID-19 vaccine from the Theory of Planned Behavior; (e) compassion for self and others; (f) psychological flexibility and inflexibility; (g) Buddhist mindfulness insight (impermanence, acceptance of suffering, nonself attachment, mindfulness); and (h) cultural orientation and authoritarianism. The data were collected between August 28th and October 18th of 2021. Out of the 746 MTurk workers who responded to the survey, 88 were removed from the dataset due to failing attention checks and problems with quality data. The responses from the remaining 658 allow an examination of the associations between fatigue and distress from COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccine related behaviors and beliefs; preventive health behaviors for COVID-19; COVID-19 susceptibility; intolerance of uncertainty; together with compassion, psychological flexibility, mindfulness, cultural orientation, as well as authoritarianism as possible moderators of COVID-19 fatigue, distress, and vaccine beliefs.

PMID:35721375 | PMC:PMC9195342 | DOI:10.1016/j.dib.2022.108390