Veille sur "One Health"

Planetary health & COVID-19: A multi-perspective investigation

11 août 2022

One Health. 2022 Jul 22:100416. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can be characterized as an outcome of degraded planetary health drivers in complex systems and has wide-reaching implications in social, economic and environmental realms. To understand the drivers of planetary health that have influences of emergence and spread of COVID-19 and their implications for sustainability systems thinking and narrative literature review is deployed. In particular, sixteen planetary health drivers are identified, i.e., population growth, climate change, agricultural intensification, urbanization, land use and land cover change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, globalization, wildlife trade, wet markets, non-planetary health diet, antimicrobial resistance, air pollution, water stress, poverty and weak governance. The implications of COVID-19 for planetary health are grouped in six categories: social, economic, environmental, technological, political, and public health. The implications for planetary health are then judged to see the impacts with respect to sustainable development goals (SDGs). The paper indicates that sustainable development goals are being hampered due to the planetary health implications of COVID-19.

PMID:35892119 | PMC:PMC9304035 | DOI:10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416

An argument for pandemic risk management using a multidisciplinary One Health approach to governance: an Australian case study

11 août 2022

Global Health. 2022 Jul 26;18(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4.

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant global impact. However, COVID-19 is just one of several high-impact infectious diseases that emerged from wildlife and are linked to the human relationship with nature. The rate of emergence of new zoonoses (diseases of animal origin) is increasing, driven by human-induced environmental changes that threaten biodiversity on a global scale. This increase is directly linked to environmental drivers including biodiversity loss, climate change and unsustainable resource extraction. Australia is a biodiversity hotspot and is subject to sustained and significant environmental change, increasing the risk of it being a location for pandemic origin. Moreover, the global integration of markets means that consumption trends in Australia contributes to the risk of disease spill-over in our regional neighbours in Asia-Pacific, and beyond. Despite the clear causal link between anthropogenic pressures on the environment and increasing pandemic risks, Australia's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, like most of the world, has centred largely on public health strategies, with a clear focus on reactive management. Yet, the span of expertise and evidence relevant to the governance of pandemic risk management is much wider than public health and epidemiology. It involves animal/wildlife health, biosecurity, conservation sciences, social sciences, behavioural psychology, law, policy and economic analyses to name just a few.The authors are a team of multidisciplinary practitioners and researchers who have worked together to analyse, synthesise, and harmonise the links between pandemic risk management approaches and issues in different disciplines to provide a holistic overview of current practice, and conclude the need for reform in Australia. We discuss the adoption of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary 'One Health' approach to pandemic risk management in Australia. A key goal of the One Health approach is to be proactive in countering threats of emerging infectious diseases and zoonoses through a recognition of the interdependence between human, animal, and environmental health. Developing ways to implement a One Health approach to pandemic prevention would not only reduce the risk of future pandemics emerging in or entering Australia, but also provide a model for prevention strategies around the world.

PMID:35883185 | DOI:10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4

The Tragedy of Liberal Democratic Governance in the Face of Global Threats

08 août 2022

Front Public Health. 2022 Jul 8;10:902724. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.902724. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

In hindsight, the early response of liberal governments to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was chaotic and generally inefficient. Though one might be tempted to attribute these failures to the incompetence of certain political decision-makers, we propose another explanation. Global threats require a coordinated international response, which is only possible if the threat is perceived in the same way by all, and if government priorities are similar. The effectiveness of the response also relies on massive adhesion of citizens to the measures imposed, which in turn requires trust in government. Our hypothesis is that certain fundamental features of liberalism complicate such global and collective responses: neutrality of the state and primacy of the individual over collective society. Liberalism considers that institutions and public policy must not be designed to favor any specific conception of the common good. That which is best for all is usually determined by a "competition of opinions," which frequently leads to scientific expertise being considered as only one opinion among many. Liberalism also imposes strict respect for individual freedoms and private interests and tends to reject any form of collectivism or dictate imposed by the common good. In order to solve these structural problems and improve society's management of global threats, we make several proposals, such as the introduction of a minimal and consensual definition of the common good and the promotion of a health policy guided by One Health-like concepts. Overall, our analysis suggests that because political ideologies provide their own definitions of the common good and the place of scientific knowledge in the governance process and can thus affect the response to global threats, they should be urgently taken into consideration by public health experts.

PMID:35875018 | PMC:PMC9304815 | DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2022.902724

Examining the paradox of urban disease ecology by linking the perspectives of Urban One Health and Ecology with Cities

28 juillet 2022

Urban Ecosyst. 2022 Jul 15:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s11252-022-01260-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The ecology of zoonotic, including vector-borne, diseases in urban social-ecological systems is influenced by complex interactions among human and environmental factors. Several characteristics contribute to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases in urban places, such as high human population densities, favorable habitat for vectors, and humans' close proximity to animals and their pathogens. On the other hand, urban living can contribute to the improvement of public health through better access to health services and creation of ecological and technological infrastructure that reduces disease burdens. Therefore, urbanization creates a disease ecology paradox through the interplay of urban health penalties and advantages for individual and community outcomes. To address this contradiction, we advocate a holistic Urban One Health perspective for managing urban systems, especially their green spaces and animal populations, in ways that more effectively control the spread of zoonotic diseases. This view should be coupled with an Ecology with Cities approach which emphasizes actionable science needed for urban planning, management and policymaking; developing disease and vector surveillance programs using citizen and community science methods; and improving education and communication actions that help diverse stakeholders understand the complexities of urban disease ecology. Such measures will enable scholars from many disciplines to collaborate with professionals, government officials, and others to tackle challenges of the urban disease paradox and create more sustainable, health-promoting environments.

PMID:35855439 | PMC:PMC9283848 | DOI:10.1007/s11252-022-01260-5

The COVID-19 pandemic from a One Health perspective

14 juillet 2022

Rev Med Suisse. 2022 Jul 13;18(790):1386-1389. doi: 10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386.

ABSTRACT

The "One Health" approach is essential to better understand and manage a pandemic of animal origin. Sensitive geopolitical considerations seem to hamper the investigations into the origin of the pandemic, but everything points to the Rhinolophus bat as the starting point of this devastating pandemic. Through a phenomenon of reverse zoonosis, several hundred cases of contamination of animals by SARS-CoV-2 have been identified worldwide, involving about twenty species of mammals. The virus has also passed from animals to humans in the case of infected mink farms in Denmark or through contact with hamsters in Hong Kong. For the development of vaccines and treatments and to help detect COVID-19 in train stations or airports, the animal has confirmed its role as a valuable auxiliary resource for humans in the fight against the pandemic.

PMID:35822747 | DOI:10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386

The need for a One Health approach for influenza surveillance

20 juin 2022

Lancet Glob Health. 2022 Jun 13:S2214-109X(22)00240-6. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00240-6. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35709797 | DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00240-6

Pet Owners' Perceptions of COVID-19, Zoonotic Disease, and Veterinary Medicine: The Impact of Demographic Characteristics

14 juin 2022

Vet Sci. 2022 Apr 19;9(5):195. doi: 10.3390/vetsci9050195.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on pet owners' concern about the transmission of zoonotic disease and SARS-CoV-2, and to describe owners' perceptions of veterinarians and physicians as resources for zoonoses information. Between September and October 2020, 1154 individuals completed an online survey via Qualtrics. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between owner demographics and perceptions of zoonoses and SARS-CoV-2. Most participants were minimally concerned about their pets contracting or transmitting zoonotic diseases or SARS-CoV-2, although perceptions of risk differed based on age, race, and education. Older participants were typically less concerned about the transmission of zoonotic diseases and SARS-CoV-2. Considering where participants obtained information about zoonoses, pet owners were more likely to contact their veterinarian for advice (43%) than their physician (17%). However, 17% of pet owners struggled to access veterinary care, and 51% said their access to veterinary care had become more difficult during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight a need for further education about zoonoses and SARS-CoV-2, and suggest veterinarians may play a key role in these communications. The results also emphasize the need to address access to care issues in veterinary medicine.

PMID:35622723 | DOI:10.3390/vetsci9050195

What is needed to sustain comprehensive medication management? One health plan's perspectives

14 juin 2022

J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2022 Jun;28(6):674-679. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2022.28.6.674.

ABSTRACT

Implementation of comprehensive medication management (CMM) in the community pharmacy setting remains sporadic despite its prevalence in other pharmacy contexts. One health plan has been investing in CMM since 2010. Their experience and perceptions in the payer-provider partnership could offer unique insights into the sustainability of CMM in community pharmacy. As part of a broader academic-payer-provider partnership, perceptions of CMM sustainability were explored with key stakeholders in the health plan through a semistructured group interview. Five themes emerged: (1) distinction between CMM and other patient care opportunities, (2) building a CMM program that delivers value requires an investment in network development, (3) payment design influences sustainability, (4) lack of push from community pharmacies to pay for CMM, and (5) the importance of an ongoing facilitated learning and action collaborative. Given previously demonstrated positive return-on-investment, CMM in community pharmacies shows promise for being a sustainable practice model. However, increased reach and performance of networks, as well as number of payers in the market, will be critical to scaling CMM in the community pharmacy setting.

PMID:35621724 | DOI:10.18553/jmcp.2022.28.6.674

Vaccination contre la variole simienne

14 juin 2022

2867.jpg

Des cas de variole simienne ont été rapportés mondialement, avec un agrégat de cas à Montréal et ailleurs au Québec. La transmission se fait principalement par contact avec un animal ou un humain infecté ou, dans une moindre mesure, avec du matériel contaminé par le virus (contact direct et indirect). La transmission interhumaine peut également se faire par gouttelettes lors d’un contact face à face prolongé, en l’absence de port d’équipement de protection individuelle.

Different profiles and epidemiological scenarios: past, present and future

14 juin 2022

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2022 May 20;117:e200409. doi: 10.1590/0074-02760200409. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

The multiplicity of epidemiological scenarios shown by Chagas Disease, derived from multiple transmission routes of the aetiological agent, occurring on multiple geo-ecobiosocial settings determines the complexity of the disease and reveal the difficulties for its control. From the first description of the link between the parasite, the vector and its domestic habitat and the disease that Carlos Chagas made in 1909, the epidemiological scenarios of the American Trypanosomiasis has shown a dynamic increasing complexity. These scenarios changed with time and geography because of new understandings of the disease from multiple studies, because of policies change at the national and international levels and because human movements brought the parasite and vectors to new geographies. Paradigms that seemed solid at a time were broken down, and we learnt about the global dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the multiplicity of transmission routes, that the infection can be cured, and that triatomines are not only a health threat in Latin America. We consider the multiple epidemiological scenarios through the different T. cruzi transmission routes, with or without the participation of a Triatominae vector. We then consider the scenario of regions with vectors without the parasite, to finish with the consideration of future prospects.

PMID:35613154 | DOI:10.1590/0074-02760200409

Benefits, companion animal zoonotic disease prevalence and public perceptions of pet ownership among people experiencing homelessness in northern California

14 juin 2022

Zoonoses Public Health. 2022 May 23. doi: 10.1111/zph.12970. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

California has the highest proportion of unhoused individuals in the country, and up to 25% of unhoused individuals own pets, providing substantial benefits but unique challenges including access to housing, transportation and unfounded grounds for social stigmatization. Unhoused individuals and pets may also be at risk for diseases due to impaired access to sanitation facilities. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate differences in perceived benefits, challenges and public perceptions among pet owners of varying housing security and the prevalence of diseases among their pets. Questionnaires were administered to housed and unhoused pet owners and pet blood screened for rickettsiosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, West Nile fever and heartworm. Among 147 canine and 16 feline blood samples, seropositivity of ectoparasitic diseases did not vary by housing status. Among 45 housed and 56 unhoused owners, unhoused owners were significantly more likely to report protective benefits, challenges obtaining housing, finding a flea on their pet, using bottled water for their pet and their pet sleeping in their bed. Housed owners were significantly more likely to report companionship and entertainment benefits, challenges with pet sitting and consistently administering parasite preventatives. Similar (96-98%) percentages stated they would not give up their pet for better housing and 31% of housed pet owners believed that people should not own pets if they do not have secure housing. Social stigma against unhoused pet owners is present within the community, requiring education to change public perception and guide policy regarding housing for pet owners experiencing homelessness.

PMID:35603643 | DOI:10.1111/zph.12970

Strategic planning, components and evolution in zoonotic diseases frameworks: one health approach and public health ethics

31 mai 2022

J Prev Med Hyg. 2022 Jan 31;62(4):E981-E987. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2021.62.4.2323. eCollection 2021 Dec.

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic diseases are seen as a major public health concern. Routes of the rapid transmission of zoonotic diseases and the economic damage they cause to communities are all reasons why health institutions and systems need to pay more attention to these diseases. Strategic planning is one of the important tasks of policymakers in every organization and system. It is a very reliable and useful tool for leading all kinds of organizations, including health organizations. Countries with clear policy plans have succeeded in controlling and reducing zoonotic diseases. Such countries used appropriate strategic planning and pursued annual goals to control and prevent diseases. Three important steps (strategy development, strategy implementation and strategy evaluation) should be considered in developing a strategic planning for controlling and prevention of zoonotic diseases. Health systems need to develop strategic planning in order to upgrade their capabilities in combating zoonotic diseases. These programs must be flexible, in line with the one health approach, based on the current needs, and aligned with the new challenges faced with health systems. The strategic planning is directly related to national and international policies, organizational goals and missions, dynamism, degree of complexity, and organizational structure of each country's health system.

PMID:35603238 | PMC:PMC9104671 | DOI:10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2021.62.4.2323

Towards a global One Health index: a potential assessment tool for One Health performance

31 mai 2022

Infect Dis Poverty. 2022 May 22;11(1):57. doi: 10.1186/s40249-022-00979-9.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A One Health approach has been increasingly mainstreamed by the international community, as it provides for holistic thinking in recognizing the close links and inter-dependence of the health of humans, animals and the environment. However, the dearth of real-world evidence has hampered application of a One Health approach in shaping policies and practice. This study proposes the development of a potential evaluation tool for One Health performance, in order to contribute to the scientific measurement of One Health approach and the identification of gaps where One Health capacity building is most urgently needed.

METHODS: We describe five steps towards a global One Health index (GOHI), including (i) framework formulation; (ii) indicator selection; (iii) database building; (iv) weight determination; and (v) GOHI scores calculation. A cell-like framework for GOHI is proposed, which comprises an external drivers index (EDI), an intrinsic drivers index (IDI) and a core drivers index (CDI). We construct the indicator scheme for GOHI based on this framework after multiple rounds of panel discussions with our expert advisory committee. A fuzzy analytical hierarchy process is adopted to determine the weights for each of the indicators.

RESULTS: The weighted indicator scheme of GOHI comprises three first-level indicators, 13 second-level indicators, and 57 third-level indicators. According to the pilot analysis based on the data from more than 200 countries/territories the GOHI scores overall are far from ideal (the highest score of 65.0 out of a maximum score of 100), and we found considerable variations among different countries/territories (31.8-65.0). The results from the pilot analysis are consistent with the results from a literature review, which suggests that a GOHI as a potential tool for the assessment of One Health performance might be feasible.

CONCLUSIONS: GOHI-subject to rigorous validation-would represent the world's first evaluation tool that constructs the conceptual framework from a holistic perspective of One Health. Future application of GOHI might promote a common understanding of a strong One Health approach and provide reference for promoting effective measures to strengthen One Health capacity building. With further adaptations under various scenarios, GOHI, along with its technical protocols and databases, will be updated regularly to address current technical limitations, and capture new knowledge.

PMID:35599310 | DOI:10.1186/s40249-022-00979-9

Development of a syndromic surveillance system for Irish dairy cattle using milk recording data

31 mai 2022

Prev Vet Med. 2022 May 10;204:105667. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2022.105667. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

In the last decade and a half, emerging vector-borne diseases have become a substantial threat to cattle across Europe. To mitigate the impact of the emergence of new diseases, outbreaks must be detected early. However, the clinical signs associated with many diseases may be nonspecific. Furthermore, there is often a delay in the development of new diagnostic tests for novel pathogens which limits the ability to detect emerging disease in the initial stages. Syndromic Surveillance has been proposed as an additional surveillance method that could augment traditional methods by detecting aberrations in non-specific disease indicators. The aim of this study was to develop a syndromic surveillance system for Irish dairy herds based on routinely collected milk recording and meteorological data. We sought to determine whether the system would have detected the 2012 Schmallenberg virus (SBV) incursion into Ireland earlier than conventional surveillance methods. Using 7,743,138 milk recordings from 730,724 cows in 7037 herds between 2007 and 2012, linear mixed-effects models were developed to predict milk yield and alarms generated with temporally clustered deviations from predicted values. Additionally, hotspot spatial analyses were conducted at corresponding time points. Using a range of thresholds, our model generated alarms throughout September 2012, between 4 and 6 weeks prior to the first laboratory confirmation of SBV in Ireland. This system for monitoring milk yield represents both a potentially useful tool for early detection of disease, and a valuable foundation for developing similar tools using other metrics.

PMID:35597104 | DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2022.105667

A generalizable one health framework for the control of zoonotic diseases

31 mai 2022

Sci Rep. 2022 May 21;12(1):8588. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-12619-1.

ABSTRACT

Effectively preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases requires a One Health approach that involves collaboration across sectors responsible for human health, animal health (both domestic and wildlife), and the environment, as well as other partners. Here we describe the Generalizable One Health Framework (GOHF), a five-step framework that provides structure for using a One Health approach in zoonotic disease programs being implemented at the local, sub-national, national, regional, or international level. Part of the framework is a toolkit that compiles existing resources and presents them following a stepwise schematic, allowing users to identify relevant resources as they are required. Coupled with recommendations for implementing a One Health approach for zoonotic disease prevention and control in technical domains including laboratory, surveillance, preparedness and response, this framework can mobilize One Health and thereby enhance and guide capacity building to combat zoonotic disease threats at the human-animal-environment interface.

PMID:35597789 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-022-12619-1