Veille sur "One Health"

COVID-19 and the ecological crisis: What do they have in common?

14 décembre 2022

Scand J Public Health. 2022 Nov 9:14034948221134339. doi: 10.1177/14034948221134339. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This lecture transcript is divided in four parts. First, I examine the main public-health strategies in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Although there are numerous factors capable of explaining national differences in COVID-19 mortality that are not attributable to merits or demerits of governments, I have identified five lethal errors (lack of preparation, misinformation, medicalisation, a policy approach based on a 'laissez-faire' attitude to the virus and social inequity) and four vital actions (testing, tracing, isolating with support, timeliness and immunisation) that best distinguish success or failure in tackling the pandemic. In the second part, I analyse the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and major risk factors for emerging zoonotic diseases (e.g. exploitation of animal wildlife, deforestation, agricultural intensification and climate change) to be addressed to prevent future pandemics. Then, I discuss the interrelationships between the COVID-19 pandemic and the ecological crisis in the context of the so-called neoliberal variant of capitalism. Both crises are largely determined by anthropogenic risk factors influenced by a model of economic development that prioritises infinite economic growth, free trade and a global self-regulating market over any other values of society (including human survival). An alternative economic approach, capable of creating a new balance between the health of humans, animals, and the environment (by modifying their structural drivers), is the most important antidote against new spillovers and climate change. It is the humanitarian immune response we need to protect global health from future pandemics and ecological collapse.

PMID:36349518 | DOI:10.1177/14034948221134339

Consideration of COVID-19 beyond the human-centred approach of prevention and control: the ONE-HEALTH perspective

19 septembre 2022

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 Sep 14:1-21. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2022.2125343. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Most of the new emerging and re-emerging zoonotic virus outbreaks in recent years stem from close interaction with dead or alive infected animals. Since late 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread into 221 countries and territories resulting in close to 300 million known infections and 5.4 million deaths in addition to a huge impact on both public health and the world economy. This paper reviews the COVID-19 prevalence in animals, raise concerns about animal welfare and discusses the role of environment in the transmission of COVID-19. Attention is drawn to the One Health concept as it emphasizes the environment in connection with the risk of transmission and establishment of diseases shared between animals and humans. Considering the importance of One Health for an effective response to the dissemination of infections of pandemic character, some unsettled issues with respect to COVID-19 are highlighted.

PMID:36102336 | DOI:10.1080/22221751.2022.2125343

One Health timeliness metrics to track and evaluate outbreak response reporting: A scoping review

19 septembre 2022

EClinicalMedicine. 2022 Sep 5;53:101620. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101620. eCollection 2022 Nov.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the global population soars, human behaviours are increasing the risk of epidemics. Objective performance evaluation of outbreak responses requires that metrics of timeliness, or speed in response time, be recorded and reported. We sought to evaluate how timeliness data are being conveyed for multisectoral outbreaks and make recommendations on how One Health metrics can be used to improve response success.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of outbreaks reported January 1, 2010- March 15, 2020, in organizational reports and peer-reviewed literature on PubMed and Embase databases. We tracked 11 outbreak milestones and calculated timeliness metrics, the median time in days, between the following: 1) Predict; 2) Prevent; 3) Start; 4) Detect; 5) Notify; 6) Verify; 7) Diagnostic; 8) Respond; 9) Communication; 10) End; and 11) After-Action Review.

FINDINGS: We identified 26783 outbreak reports, 1014 of which involved more than just the human health sector. Only six of the eleven milestones were mentioned in >50% of reports. The time between most milestones was on average shorter for outbreaks reporting both Predict (alert of a potential outbreak) and Prevent (response to predictive alert) events.

INTERPRETATION: Tracking progress in timeliness during outbreaks can focus efforts to prevent outbreaks from evolving into epidemics or pandemics. Response to predictive alerts demonstrated improved expediency in time to most milestones. We recommend the adoption of universally defined One Health outbreak milestones, including After Action Review, such that timeliness metrics can be used to assess outbreak response improvements over time.

FUNDING: This study was made possible by the United States Agency for International Development's One Health Workforce-Next Generation Project (Cooperative Agreement 7200AA19CA00018).

PMID:36097540 | PMC:PMC9463558 | DOI:10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101620

Search term "One Health" remains of limited use to identify relevant scientific publications: Denmark as a case study

18 août 2022

Front Public Health. 2022 Jul 28;10:938460. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.938460. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

One Health has become a popular approach, and scientific advancements in the field should be easily findable and accessible to a wide range of relevant audiences, from researchers to policymakers, and across sectors. We conducted a systematic narrative review of available scientific publications concerning One Health in the setting of Denmark that were retrievable using "One Health" as the key search term. Three searches in two databases yielded 30 retrieved publications, 13 of which were included in the review. The included publications had been published between 2015 and 2021. Twelve of the included publications were co-authored in collaboration across institutes from different sectors. Three of the included publications had focus on antimicrobial resistance, three on disease surveillance and/or control, and five were assessments or evaluations. The overall number of publications identified by a search using "One Health" as the key search term was small, and the search identified some publications that were not relevant to One Health. Our work thus highlights a missed scientific and communication opportunity of signposting articles as relevant to One Health. Using the expression "One Health" as keyword could help making One Health research more easily findable and thereby obtaining an overview of research in the field.

PMID:35968488 | PMC:PMC9368311 | DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2022.938460

Planetary health & COVID-19: A multi-perspective investigation

11 août 2022

One Health. 2022 Jul 22:100416. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can be characterized as an outcome of degraded planetary health drivers in complex systems and has wide-reaching implications in social, economic and environmental realms. To understand the drivers of planetary health that have influences of emergence and spread of COVID-19 and their implications for sustainability systems thinking and narrative literature review is deployed. In particular, sixteen planetary health drivers are identified, i.e., population growth, climate change, agricultural intensification, urbanization, land use and land cover change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, globalization, wildlife trade, wet markets, non-planetary health diet, antimicrobial resistance, air pollution, water stress, poverty and weak governance. The implications of COVID-19 for planetary health are grouped in six categories: social, economic, environmental, technological, political, and public health. The implications for planetary health are then judged to see the impacts with respect to sustainable development goals (SDGs). The paper indicates that sustainable development goals are being hampered due to the planetary health implications of COVID-19.

PMID:35892119 | PMC:PMC9304035 | DOI:10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416

An argument for pandemic risk management using a multidisciplinary One Health approach to governance: an Australian case study

11 août 2022

Global Health. 2022 Jul 26;18(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4.

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant global impact. However, COVID-19 is just one of several high-impact infectious diseases that emerged from wildlife and are linked to the human relationship with nature. The rate of emergence of new zoonoses (diseases of animal origin) is increasing, driven by human-induced environmental changes that threaten biodiversity on a global scale. This increase is directly linked to environmental drivers including biodiversity loss, climate change and unsustainable resource extraction. Australia is a biodiversity hotspot and is subject to sustained and significant environmental change, increasing the risk of it being a location for pandemic origin. Moreover, the global integration of markets means that consumption trends in Australia contributes to the risk of disease spill-over in our regional neighbours in Asia-Pacific, and beyond. Despite the clear causal link between anthropogenic pressures on the environment and increasing pandemic risks, Australia's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, like most of the world, has centred largely on public health strategies, with a clear focus on reactive management. Yet, the span of expertise and evidence relevant to the governance of pandemic risk management is much wider than public health and epidemiology. It involves animal/wildlife health, biosecurity, conservation sciences, social sciences, behavioural psychology, law, policy and economic analyses to name just a few.The authors are a team of multidisciplinary practitioners and researchers who have worked together to analyse, synthesise, and harmonise the links between pandemic risk management approaches and issues in different disciplines to provide a holistic overview of current practice, and conclude the need for reform in Australia. We discuss the adoption of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary 'One Health' approach to pandemic risk management in Australia. A key goal of the One Health approach is to be proactive in countering threats of emerging infectious diseases and zoonoses through a recognition of the interdependence between human, animal, and environmental health. Developing ways to implement a One Health approach to pandemic prevention would not only reduce the risk of future pandemics emerging in or entering Australia, but also provide a model for prevention strategies around the world.

PMID:35883185 | DOI:10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4

The Tragedy of Liberal Democratic Governance in the Face of Global Threats

08 août 2022

Front Public Health. 2022 Jul 8;10:902724. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.902724. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

In hindsight, the early response of liberal governments to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was chaotic and generally inefficient. Though one might be tempted to attribute these failures to the incompetence of certain political decision-makers, we propose another explanation. Global threats require a coordinated international response, which is only possible if the threat is perceived in the same way by all, and if government priorities are similar. The effectiveness of the response also relies on massive adhesion of citizens to the measures imposed, which in turn requires trust in government. Our hypothesis is that certain fundamental features of liberalism complicate such global and collective responses: neutrality of the state and primacy of the individual over collective society. Liberalism considers that institutions and public policy must not be designed to favor any specific conception of the common good. That which is best for all is usually determined by a "competition of opinions," which frequently leads to scientific expertise being considered as only one opinion among many. Liberalism also imposes strict respect for individual freedoms and private interests and tends to reject any form of collectivism or dictate imposed by the common good. In order to solve these structural problems and improve society's management of global threats, we make several proposals, such as the introduction of a minimal and consensual definition of the common good and the promotion of a health policy guided by One Health-like concepts. Overall, our analysis suggests that because political ideologies provide their own definitions of the common good and the place of scientific knowledge in the governance process and can thus affect the response to global threats, they should be urgently taken into consideration by public health experts.

PMID:35875018 | PMC:PMC9304815 | DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2022.902724

Examining the paradox of urban disease ecology by linking the perspectives of Urban One Health and Ecology with Cities

28 juillet 2022

Urban Ecosyst. 2022 Jul 15:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s11252-022-01260-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The ecology of zoonotic, including vector-borne, diseases in urban social-ecological systems is influenced by complex interactions among human and environmental factors. Several characteristics contribute to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases in urban places, such as high human population densities, favorable habitat for vectors, and humans' close proximity to animals and their pathogens. On the other hand, urban living can contribute to the improvement of public health through better access to health services and creation of ecological and technological infrastructure that reduces disease burdens. Therefore, urbanization creates a disease ecology paradox through the interplay of urban health penalties and advantages for individual and community outcomes. To address this contradiction, we advocate a holistic Urban One Health perspective for managing urban systems, especially their green spaces and animal populations, in ways that more effectively control the spread of zoonotic diseases. This view should be coupled with an Ecology with Cities approach which emphasizes actionable science needed for urban planning, management and policymaking; developing disease and vector surveillance programs using citizen and community science methods; and improving education and communication actions that help diverse stakeholders understand the complexities of urban disease ecology. Such measures will enable scholars from many disciplines to collaborate with professionals, government officials, and others to tackle challenges of the urban disease paradox and create more sustainable, health-promoting environments.

PMID:35855439 | PMC:PMC9283848 | DOI:10.1007/s11252-022-01260-5

The COVID-19 pandemic from a One Health perspective

14 juillet 2022

Rev Med Suisse. 2022 Jul 13;18(790):1386-1389. doi: 10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386.

ABSTRACT

The "One Health" approach is essential to better understand and manage a pandemic of animal origin. Sensitive geopolitical considerations seem to hamper the investigations into the origin of the pandemic, but everything points to the Rhinolophus bat as the starting point of this devastating pandemic. Through a phenomenon of reverse zoonosis, several hundred cases of contamination of animals by SARS-CoV-2 have been identified worldwide, involving about twenty species of mammals. The virus has also passed from animals to humans in the case of infected mink farms in Denmark or through contact with hamsters in Hong Kong. For the development of vaccines and treatments and to help detect COVID-19 in train stations or airports, the animal has confirmed its role as a valuable auxiliary resource for humans in the fight against the pandemic.

PMID:35822747 | DOI:10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386

The need for a One Health approach for influenza surveillance

20 juin 2022

Lancet Glob Health. 2022 Jun 13:S2214-109X(22)00240-6. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00240-6. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:35709797 | DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00240-6

Pet Owners' Perceptions of COVID-19, Zoonotic Disease, and Veterinary Medicine: The Impact of Demographic Characteristics

14 juin 2022

Vet Sci. 2022 Apr 19;9(5):195. doi: 10.3390/vetsci9050195.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on pet owners' concern about the transmission of zoonotic disease and SARS-CoV-2, and to describe owners' perceptions of veterinarians and physicians as resources for zoonoses information. Between September and October 2020, 1154 individuals completed an online survey via Qualtrics. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between owner demographics and perceptions of zoonoses and SARS-CoV-2. Most participants were minimally concerned about their pets contracting or transmitting zoonotic diseases or SARS-CoV-2, although perceptions of risk differed based on age, race, and education. Older participants were typically less concerned about the transmission of zoonotic diseases and SARS-CoV-2. Considering where participants obtained information about zoonoses, pet owners were more likely to contact their veterinarian for advice (43%) than their physician (17%). However, 17% of pet owners struggled to access veterinary care, and 51% said their access to veterinary care had become more difficult during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight a need for further education about zoonoses and SARS-CoV-2, and suggest veterinarians may play a key role in these communications. The results also emphasize the need to address access to care issues in veterinary medicine.

PMID:35622723 | DOI:10.3390/vetsci9050195

What is needed to sustain comprehensive medication management? One health plan's perspectives

14 juin 2022

J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2022 Jun;28(6):674-679. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2022.28.6.674.

ABSTRACT

Implementation of comprehensive medication management (CMM) in the community pharmacy setting remains sporadic despite its prevalence in other pharmacy contexts. One health plan has been investing in CMM since 2010. Their experience and perceptions in the payer-provider partnership could offer unique insights into the sustainability of CMM in community pharmacy. As part of a broader academic-payer-provider partnership, perceptions of CMM sustainability were explored with key stakeholders in the health plan through a semistructured group interview. Five themes emerged: (1) distinction between CMM and other patient care opportunities, (2) building a CMM program that delivers value requires an investment in network development, (3) payment design influences sustainability, (4) lack of push from community pharmacies to pay for CMM, and (5) the importance of an ongoing facilitated learning and action collaborative. Given previously demonstrated positive return-on-investment, CMM in community pharmacies shows promise for being a sustainable practice model. However, increased reach and performance of networks, as well as number of payers in the market, will be critical to scaling CMM in the community pharmacy setting.

PMID:35621724 | DOI:10.18553/jmcp.2022.28.6.674

Vaccination contre la variole simienne

14 juin 2022

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La variole simienne (Monkeypox) est une maladie zoonotique causée par le virus de la variole simienne (Monkeypox virus – MPXV), un virus enveloppé à ADN double brin, de la famille des Poxviridae, genre Orthopoxvirus. Ce genre comprend également le virus de la vaccine et le virus de la variole (humaine)..

Different profiles and epidemiological scenarios: past, present and future

14 juin 2022

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2022 May 20;117:e200409. doi: 10.1590/0074-02760200409. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

The multiplicity of epidemiological scenarios shown by Chagas Disease, derived from multiple transmission routes of the aetiological agent, occurring on multiple geo-ecobiosocial settings determines the complexity of the disease and reveal the difficulties for its control. From the first description of the link between the parasite, the vector and its domestic habitat and the disease that Carlos Chagas made in 1909, the epidemiological scenarios of the American Trypanosomiasis has shown a dynamic increasing complexity. These scenarios changed with time and geography because of new understandings of the disease from multiple studies, because of policies change at the national and international levels and because human movements brought the parasite and vectors to new geographies. Paradigms that seemed solid at a time were broken down, and we learnt about the global dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the multiplicity of transmission routes, that the infection can be cured, and that triatomines are not only a health threat in Latin America. We consider the multiple epidemiological scenarios through the different T. cruzi transmission routes, with or without the participation of a Triatominae vector. We then consider the scenario of regions with vectors without the parasite, to finish with the consideration of future prospects.

PMID:35613154 | DOI:10.1590/0074-02760200409

Benefits, companion animal zoonotic disease prevalence and public perceptions of pet ownership among people experiencing homelessness in northern California

14 juin 2022

Zoonoses Public Health. 2022 May 23. doi: 10.1111/zph.12970. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

California has the highest proportion of unhoused individuals in the country, and up to 25% of unhoused individuals own pets, providing substantial benefits but unique challenges including access to housing, transportation and unfounded grounds for social stigmatization. Unhoused individuals and pets may also be at risk for diseases due to impaired access to sanitation facilities. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate differences in perceived benefits, challenges and public perceptions among pet owners of varying housing security and the prevalence of diseases among their pets. Questionnaires were administered to housed and unhoused pet owners and pet blood screened for rickettsiosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, West Nile fever and heartworm. Among 147 canine and 16 feline blood samples, seropositivity of ectoparasitic diseases did not vary by housing status. Among 45 housed and 56 unhoused owners, unhoused owners were significantly more likely to report protective benefits, challenges obtaining housing, finding a flea on their pet, using bottled water for their pet and their pet sleeping in their bed. Housed owners were significantly more likely to report companionship and entertainment benefits, challenges with pet sitting and consistently administering parasite preventatives. Similar (96-98%) percentages stated they would not give up their pet for better housing and 31% of housed pet owners believed that people should not own pets if they do not have secure housing. Social stigma against unhoused pet owners is present within the community, requiring education to change public perception and guide policy regarding housing for pet owners experiencing homelessness.

PMID:35603643 | DOI:10.1111/zph.12970