Veille sur le COVID-19

COVID-19 and the ecological crisis: What do they have in common?

14 décembre 2022

Scand J Public Health. 2022 Nov 9:14034948221134339. doi: 10.1177/14034948221134339. Online ahead of print.


This lecture transcript is divided in four parts. First, I examine the main public-health strategies in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Although there are numerous factors capable of explaining national differences in COVID-19 mortality that are not attributable to merits or demerits of governments, I have identified five lethal errors (lack of preparation, misinformation, medicalisation, a policy approach based on a 'laissez-faire' attitude to the virus and social inequity) and four vital actions (testing, tracing, isolating with support, timeliness and immunisation) that best distinguish success or failure in tackling the pandemic. In the second part, I analyse the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and major risk factors for emerging zoonotic diseases (e.g. exploitation of animal wildlife, deforestation, agricultural intensification and climate change) to be addressed to prevent future pandemics. Then, I discuss the interrelationships between the COVID-19 pandemic and the ecological crisis in the context of the so-called neoliberal variant of capitalism. Both crises are largely determined by anthropogenic risk factors influenced by a model of economic development that prioritises infinite economic growth, free trade and a global self-regulating market over any other values of society (including human survival). An alternative economic approach, capable of creating a new balance between the health of humans, animals, and the environment (by modifying their structural drivers), is the most important antidote against new spillovers and climate change. It is the humanitarian immune response we need to protect global health from future pandemics and ecological collapse.

PMID:36349518 | DOI:10.1177/14034948221134339

Comment construire une Europe de la santé

07 novembre 2022

Miribel, Benoît, rapp. ; Pajares y Sanchez, Catherine, rapp., Conseil économique social et environnemental (CESE), avril 2022, 90p.Le CESE formule 17 préconisations pour poser les bases d’une Europe de la Santé efficace, à même de répondre à ces nouveaux défis et aux attentes des citoyens pour développer une démocratie sanitaire européenne et coordonner davantage, intensifier la prévention et relever les défis.


Consideration of COVID-19 beyond the human-centred approach of prevention and control: the ONE-HEALTH perspective

19 septembre 2022

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 Sep 14:1-21. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2022.2125343. Online ahead of print.


Most of the new emerging and re-emerging zoonotic virus outbreaks in recent years stem from close interaction with dead or alive infected animals. Since late 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread into 221 countries and territories resulting in close to 300 million known infections and 5.4 million deaths in addition to a huge impact on both public health and the world economy. This paper reviews the COVID-19 prevalence in animals, raise concerns about animal welfare and discusses the role of environment in the transmission of COVID-19. Attention is drawn to the One Health concept as it emphasizes the environment in connection with the risk of transmission and establishment of diseases shared between animals and humans. Considering the importance of One Health for an effective response to the dissemination of infections of pandemic character, some unsettled issues with respect to COVID-19 are highlighted.

PMID:36102336 | DOI:10.1080/22221751.2022.2125343

Nouveau! Sélection de ressources bibliographique sur l’impact de la crise COVID-19 sur les inégalité de santé en Belgique francophone

19 septembre 2022

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Brèves - 01 septembre 2022

Nouveau! Sélection de ressources bibliographique sur l’impact de la crise COVID-19 sur les inégalité de santé en Belgique francophone

L’Observatoire du sida et des sexualités (ULB) s’est donné l’objectif de dresser un état des lieux des connaissances scientifiques actuelles, en sciences humaines et sociales, sur l’épidémie de la Covid et ses effets sur les populations en Belgique francophone (avec un focus sur la Wallonie), les questions que soulèvent les mesures de prévention et les Plus d’infos

Statement by WHO Regional Director on monkeypox and COVID-19

23 août 2022

23 August 2022 – Good afternoon and welcome to today’s press briefing on the latest updates on monkeypox and COVID-19.

As of 20 August, 7 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region have officially reported 35 laboratory-confirmed cases of monkeypox to WHO, with no associated deaths.

Globally, the number of weekly reported new cases was regularly increasing until last week when a decrease of 21% was reported.

Since 1 January 2022, 96 Member States have reported more than 40 000 laboratory-confirmed cases to WHO, including 12 deaths.

The monkeypox outbreak continues to spread to more countries in the 6 WHO regions. While it is predominantly affecting men who have sex with men, every one of us is at risk. We have received reports of infection among children and women in our Region and around the world.

WHO’s Director-General declared monkeypox a public health emergency of international concern on 23 July 2022. This is to help everyone recognize the risk and take all possible preventative measures. Stigma and discrimination can only delay the response and deflect our attention from what needs to be done. Our collective focus must be on an effective public health response that will stop transmission and contain the outbreak.

Most people with monkeypox can recover safely at home with supportive treatment. However, in some cases the disease can cause severe illness with complications that could lead to death. This is especially true for vulnerable groups, such as people with pre-existing medical conditions.  New information is still unfolding about monkeypox, its mode of transmission, and vaccine


Planetary health & COVID-19: A multi-perspective investigation

11 août 2022

One Health. 2022 Jul 22:100416. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416. Online ahead of print.


COVID-19 can be characterized as an outcome of degraded planetary health drivers in complex systems and has wide-reaching implications in social, economic and environmental realms. To understand the drivers of planetary health that have influences of emergence and spread of COVID-19 and their implications for sustainability systems thinking and narrative literature review is deployed. In particular, sixteen planetary health drivers are identified, i.e., population growth, climate change, agricultural intensification, urbanization, land use and land cover change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, globalization, wildlife trade, wet markets, non-planetary health diet, antimicrobial resistance, air pollution, water stress, poverty and weak governance. The implications of COVID-19 for planetary health are grouped in six categories: social, economic, environmental, technological, political, and public health. The implications for planetary health are then judged to see the impacts with respect to sustainable development goals (SDGs). The paper indicates that sustainable development goals are being hampered due to the planetary health implications of COVID-19.

PMID:35892119 | PMC:PMC9304035 | DOI:10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100416

An argument for pandemic risk management using a multidisciplinary One Health approach to governance: an Australian case study

11 août 2022

Global Health. 2022 Jul 26;18(1):73. doi: 10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4.


The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant global impact. However, COVID-19 is just one of several high-impact infectious diseases that emerged from wildlife and are linked to the human relationship with nature. The rate of emergence of new zoonoses (diseases of animal origin) is increasing, driven by human-induced environmental changes that threaten biodiversity on a global scale. This increase is directly linked to environmental drivers including biodiversity loss, climate change and unsustainable resource extraction. Australia is a biodiversity hotspot and is subject to sustained and significant environmental change, increasing the risk of it being a location for pandemic origin. Moreover, the global integration of markets means that consumption trends in Australia contributes to the risk of disease spill-over in our regional neighbours in Asia-Pacific, and beyond. Despite the clear causal link between anthropogenic pressures on the environment and increasing pandemic risks, Australia's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, like most of the world, has centred largely on public health strategies, with a clear focus on reactive management. Yet, the span of expertise and evidence relevant to the governance of pandemic risk management is much wider than public health and epidemiology. It involves animal/wildlife health, biosecurity, conservation sciences, social sciences, behavioural psychology, law, policy and economic analyses to name just a few.The authors are a team of multidisciplinary practitioners and researchers who have worked together to analyse, synthesise, and harmonise the links between pandemic risk management approaches and issues in different disciplines to provide a holistic overview of current practice, and conclude the need for reform in Australia. We discuss the adoption of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary 'One Health' approach to pandemic risk management in Australia. A key goal of the One Health approach is to be proactive in countering threats of emerging infectious diseases and zoonoses through a recognition of the interdependence between human, animal, and environmental health. Developing ways to implement a One Health approach to pandemic prevention would not only reduce the risk of future pandemics emerging in or entering Australia, but also provide a model for prevention strategies around the world.

PMID:35883185 | DOI:10.1186/s12992-022-00850-4

Statement by WHO’s Regional Director on COVID-19 and monkeypox

11 août 2022

26 July 2022 – Good morning from WHO’s Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean in Cairo and welcome to this media briefing on COVID-19 and monkeypox.  

Firstly, let me introduce my friend and colleague Dr Maha El Rabbat, Professor of Public Health, member of the African Union Commission for Africa Recovery, and former WHO Director-General Special Envoy on COVID-19 for the Eastern Mediterranean Region. She has been a great support to WHO and the Region throughout the pandemic.  It will be my pleasure to provide you with the regional update on COVID-19 and monkeypox; Dr Rabbat will provide the global perspective.  

Across the Eastern Mediterranean Region, almost 22.5 million confirmed cases and more than 344 000 deaths have been reported as of 24 July 2022. Twenty-one (21) out of 22 countries reported the detection of at least one variant of concern and the detection of the Omicron variant of concern has been reported by 17 countries. 

Over the past 5 weeks, the Eastern Mediterranean Region continued to observe an increase in COVID-19 cases and deaths because of the circulation of variants and the easing or lifting of public health and social measures in most countries. We anticipate this surge to continue for a few more weeks.  

Vaccination efforts in the Region are ongoing, but vaccine coverage is still lagging behind WHO’s global vaccinations targets of 70% of all populations vaccinated and 100% coverage of priority groups, such as health care workers, the elderly and people with underlying health conditions. 

As of 18 July 2022, only 45%


Belief and Recall of Nicotine as Therapeutic for COVID-19 May Undermine E-Cigarette Quitting Behavior

20 juillet 2022
Health Education &Behavior, Ahead of Print.
We examine the proposition that misinformation about the therapeutic potential of nicotine to prevent or treat COVID-19 may lead to relapse among attempted e-cigarette quitters. A sample of N = 507 e-cigarette ever-users who reported at least one quit attempt in the past year were surveyed in June of 2021 for recall and belief in several claims about COVID-19 and nicotine. Participants who recalled and believed at least one misinformation claim were significantly more likely to have relapsed than those who did not recall or believe such claims. These differences remained robust to regression analysis adding demographic covariates and accounting for continuous measurement of recall and belief. Misinformation about e-cigarette use is reaching young adult e-cigarette users who are trying to quit. The implications of these findings merit further research to characterize potential barriers to successful e-cigarette cessation.

Differences in Beliefs and Behaviors Related to COVID-19 Prevention Among Adult Current and Former Smokers and With and Without A Cancer Diagnosis

20 juillet 2022
American Journal of Health Promotion, Ahead of Print.
PurposeStudy aims included assessing differences in beliefs/behaviors about COVID-19 prevention among current and former smokers with and without cancer.DesignA cross-sectional survey about COVID-19 beliefs/behaviors was administered from June 2020 to January 2021.SettingSurvey conducted online via Qualtrics from June 2020 to January 2021.SubjectsParticipants were current (n = 101) and former (n = 102) smokers with and without cancer.MeasuresQuestions were related to beliefs about efficacy of and engagement in behaviors for COVID-19 prevention.ResultsResults from logistic regressions displayed that individuals with cancer were more likely to indicate using hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol was ineffective (OR = .12, 95% CI: [.02, .65]) and avoided public transportation (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: [1.04, 3.28]) compared to those without cancer. Former smokers were more likely to indicate taking vitamin C was effective (OR = .45, 95% CI: [.22, .93]) and rinsing your mouth with salt water (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: [1.02, 3.50]) was ineffective compared to current smokers. Current smokers were more likely to indicate not smoking was effective compared to former smokers (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: [1.13, 4.24]).ConclusionsCounters to COVID-19 misinformation may need to be tailored to different at-risk groups based on differential beliefs and behaviors.

Experiences of suffering among nursing professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic: A descriptive qualitative study

18 juillet 2022

Appl Nurs Res. 2022 Aug;66:151603. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2022.151603. Epub 2022 Jun 24.


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Healthcare professionals have played a fundamental role in managing and controlling the COVID-19 health crisis. They are exposed to high levels of suffering, trauma, uncertainty, and powerlessness in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore and understand experiences of suffering among primary care and hospital care nurses during the COVID-19 health crisis.

DESIGN: This is a descriptive qualitative study. Between March and April 2021, 19 in-depth interviews were carried out with nurses at health and social care facilities and hospitals in southern Spain. ATLAS.ti 9.0 software was used for discourse analysis.

RESULTS: Nurses reported that they had experienced suffering during their work in the pandemic. The main causes suggested were direct contact with patients' suffering and organisational difficulties. The repercussions are in emotional dimension and physical deterioration and social isolation.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Given the circumstances, programmes to promote healthy, compassion-based behaviours and changes to the way in which professionals' suffering is handled must be implemented by healthcare facility managers. Nursing leaders should consider the management of suffering as a matter of the first order, both from the ethical point of view and the business profitability and make compassionate leadership.

PMID:35840275 | DOI:10.1016/j.apnr.2022.151603

The COVID-19 pandemic from a One Health perspective

14 juillet 2022

Rev Med Suisse. 2022 Jul 13;18(790):1386-1389. doi: 10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386.


The "One Health" approach is essential to better understand and manage a pandemic of animal origin. Sensitive geopolitical considerations seem to hamper the investigations into the origin of the pandemic, but everything points to the Rhinolophus bat as the starting point of this devastating pandemic. Through a phenomenon of reverse zoonosis, several hundred cases of contamination of animals by SARS-CoV-2 have been identified worldwide, involving about twenty species of mammals. The virus has also passed from animals to humans in the case of infected mink farms in Denmark or through contact with hamsters in Hong Kong. For the development of vaccines and treatments and to help detect COVID-19 in train stations or airports, the animal has confirmed its role as a valuable auxiliary resource for humans in the fight against the pandemic.

PMID:35822747 | DOI:10.53738/REVMED.2022.18.790.1386