Veille sur la santé environnementale

Examining the paradox of urban disease ecology by linking the perspectives of Urban One Health and Ecology with Cities

28 juillet 2022

Urban Ecosyst. 2022 Jul 15:1-11. doi: 10.1007/s11252-022-01260-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The ecology of zoonotic, including vector-borne, diseases in urban social-ecological systems is influenced by complex interactions among human and environmental factors. Several characteristics contribute to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases in urban places, such as high human population densities, favorable habitat for vectors, and humans' close proximity to animals and their pathogens. On the other hand, urban living can contribute to the improvement of public health through better access to health services and creation of ecological and technological infrastructure that reduces disease burdens. Therefore, urbanization creates a disease ecology paradox through the interplay of urban health penalties and advantages for individual and community outcomes. To address this contradiction, we advocate a holistic Urban One Health perspective for managing urban systems, especially their green spaces and animal populations, in ways that more effectively control the spread of zoonotic diseases. This view should be coupled with an Ecology with Cities approach which emphasizes actionable science needed for urban planning, management and policymaking; developing disease and vector surveillance programs using citizen and community science methods; and improving education and communication actions that help diverse stakeholders understand the complexities of urban disease ecology. Such measures will enable scholars from many disciplines to collaborate with professionals, government officials, and others to tackle challenges of the urban disease paradox and create more sustainable, health-promoting environments.

PMID:35855439 | PMC:PMC9283848 | DOI:10.1007/s11252-022-01260-5

Volcano: Between Structural Vulnerabilities and Collective Defence of Honor in Communities Surrounding an Open Dumpsite

27 juillet 2022
Qualitative Health Research, Ahead of Print.
This study analyzes the dynamics in which structural vulnerabilities are shaped and expressed in the day-to-day lives of people making a living from a garbage dump in Argentina. It is a mixed methods case study, qualitative driven with a collaborative cycle (2016-2021). The study is embedded in medical anthropology, social epidemiology and Latin America Social Medicine, with the focus on the ways people respond to inequalities locally. The findings contribute to the field of health disparities in three directions: 1) the description of patterns of segregation in South America peripheries, shedding light on cumulative disadvantages and multiple exposures; 2) the experience of living enmeshed in places with strong stigmas, revising the ways this source of discrimination become social suffering; and 3) the detection of the impact of collective action and social capital in providing material and symbolic resources for restoring dignity and honour that challenge depreciated status.

Health impact assessment of local policies: methodology and tools

27 juillet 2022
Global Health Promotion, Ahead of Print.
The aim of this work was to design some tools and a procedure for performing the Health Impact Assessment of municipal policies. A working group made up of municipal and public health specialists from the Valencian Community (Spain) was set up. After reviewing the tools used in other contexts, the Fem Salut? questionnaire for the simplified Health Impact Assessment of regional policies was adapted for use at the local level. A pilot study was carried out in six municipalities and local initiatives promoted by different sectors were analysed. Two workshops were held per municipality (with specialists and with citizens) and participatory techniques were used to identify the possible impacts on the social determinants of health, the population groups more particularly affected and the proposals for improvement. The feasibility of the methodology and the difficulties involved in carrying it out were discussed. A procedure was defined for the Health Impact Assessment of local initiatives in six steps: Describe (the municipality and the project), Extract (screening phase), Co-produce (participatory workshops), Integrate (the scientific evidence with the qualitative information obtained), Disseminate (to politicians, specialists and community) and Evaluate (direct and indirect results) (DECIDE). A guide was developed to facilitate its application at the local level along with two complementary tools (a questionnaire and worksheets). The technical group rated the process as simple and flexible, as well as being easy to adapt to the characteristics of the municipality and project. In addition to the cross-sectoral approach, the incorporation of citizen participation in the process is an important added value.

Enquête sur les pratiques des communes pour prévenir les impacts sanitaires de la canicule

14 juillet 2022

Dans le cadre de l'instruction interministérielle canicule, la prévention des effets sanitaires des canicules repose principalement sur les acteurs locaux, notamment les communes. Santé publique France a donc souhaité dresser un panorama de leurs pratiques concernant les mesures d'adaptation à la chaleur en ville et la prévention contre la chaleur des scolaires, des sans-abri et des personnes vulnérables (via les registres municipaux de personnes âgées/handicapées volontaires à des fins d'alerte et de protection). L'objectif était aussi d'évaluer la perception des risques et les difficultés des communes. Quatre questionnaires en ligne ont été proposés en 2019 à l'ensemble des 34 839 communes de France métropolitaine. Les mairies ont été sollicitées via un emailing adressé aux maires et à certains services dédiés en lien avec les thématiques des questionnaires. Quelques centaines de communes ont répondu à l'ensemble des items de chaque questionnaire...
EN SAVOIR PLUS / https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/view/content/448778/full/1/527538

Les grands défis des années à venir pour les jeunesses

14 juillet 2022

Soucieux de participer à la construction d’une ambition commune pour les politiques de jeunesse, le Conseil d’orientation des politiques de jeunesse (COJ) a souhaité donner la parole à ses membres et à ses partenaires pour définir les grands enjeux et défis qui, s’ils sont pleinement appropriés par les pouvoirs publics, participeront à soutenir les jeunesses dans leur parcours vers l’autonomie et à leur donner, dans la pluralité de leurs situations, une place à la hauteur de ce qu’elles méritent.......La transition démographique confronte la société française à unvieillissement accéléré de sa population. Dans un tel contexte,l’enjeu de solidarités entre générations et de construction d’unregard pluriel est nécessaire alors que la question des inégalitésintergénérationnelles divise les jeunes (baromètre DJEPVA 2021)....

ENSAVOIR PLUS / https://www.cnape.fr/documents/coj_-avis_-les-grands-defis-des-annees-a-venir-pour-les-jeunesses/


COVID 19 pandemic: Impact of changes experienced on social workers' professional quality of life in Singapore

14 juillet 2022

Soc Work Health Care. 2022 Jul 12:1-25. doi: 10.1080/00981389.2022.2092582. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has impacted all spheres of life massively. Among the emerging studies on the psychosocial impact of the pandemic, few studies look specifically at how social workers are impacted. To understand this gap, this study surveyed 337 social workers. The findings showed that changes experienced in the workplace were enormous and caused secondary traumatic stress while engendering compassion satisfaction among social workers, but the presence of social support moderated to keep the secondary traumatic stress at bay. Resilience mediated association between social and workplace support and compassion fatigue. Social support seemed to have the largest effect on reducing stress through resilience. Workplace support also helped mitigate burnout. In conclusion, continued social and workplace support will be key to supporting social workers during a pandemic.

PMID:35819057 | DOI:10.1080/00981389.2022.2092582

Carte blanche : le mal logement nécessite une intervention rapide des pouvoirs publics

20 juin 2022

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Carte blanche : le mal logement nécessite une intervention rapide des pouvoirs publics

13 juin 2022

Les conséquences économiques de la pandémie de covid et l’inflation plongent de nombreux ménages bruxellois dans la précarité. Il faut soutenir les initiatives visant à réguler le marché locatif privé, (...)

Treatment Experiences Among People Who Use Opioids: A Social Ecological Approach

14 juin 2022
Qualitative Health Research, Ahead of Print.
The prevalence of opioid use disorder (OUD) and surge in overdose deaths remain key public health concerns. Despite evidence supporting the efficaciousness of medications for opioid use disorder, most people with OUD do not receive treatment. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 adults in a northeastern city to learn about their experiences with substance use treatment. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive thematic content analysis approach, and a social ecological model was applied to examine contextual factors affecting participants’ experiences accessing and engaging in treatment. While we organized our findings following the individual, interpersonal, community, and society levels of the socio-ecological model, we also observed overlap and interconnectedness between and across these levels. Our findings suggest that retention in treatment often depends upon personal motivation, treatment availability, the match of the treatment modality to an individual’s needs, and social support. A person-centered approach is needed to promote individualized care and tailor treatment components to the patient’s needs.

Association of eHealth Literacy with Health Promotion Behaviors of Community-Dwelling Older People: The Chain Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Ability

14 juin 2022

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 May 17;19(10):6092. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19106092.

ABSTRACT

In the digital age, electronic health literacy (eHealth literacy) of community-dwelling older people plays a potentially important role in their health behaviors which are critical for health outcomes. Researchers have documented that self-efficacy and self-care ability are related to this relationship. This study aimed to assess the relationship between eHealth literacy and health promotion behaviors among older people living in communities and explore the chain mediating role of self-efficacy and self-care ability. For this cross-sectional study, we used data from 425 older adults at 3 communities in Qingdao, Shandong Province in Northeastern China, from June to September 2021. Path analysis using the structural equation model was performed. We found that eHealth literacy was significantly associated with health promotion behaviors in older people. Additionally, eHealth literacy indirectly affected health promotion behaviors through self-efficacy and self-care ability, respectively. In addition, the chain mediation effect was identified in the relationship of eHealth literacy and health promotion behaviors: eHealth literacy→ self-efficacy→ self-care ability→ health promotion behaviors. These findings offer promising directions for developing interventions to modify older adults' health behaviors through enhancing their eHealth literacy. These interventions should integrate components that target improving the self-efficacy and self-care ability of older people.

PMID:35627627 | DOI:10.3390/ijerph19106092

Profils des systèmes de santé publique au Canada : Québec

14 juin 2022

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Alors que le Canada doit composer avec la pandémie de COVID-19, l’un des plus grands défis de santé publique de notre époque, le besoin de renforcer les systèmes de santé publique n’a jamais été aussi grand. Des systèmes de santé publique forts sont essentiels pour assurer la viabilité du système de santé, pour améliorer la santé des populations et l’équité en santé, et pour se préparer et répondre aux crises actuelles et futures. De grandes variations existent entre les provinces et les territoires en ce qui a trait aux manières dont la santé publique est organisée, gouvernée et financée, et aussi en ce qui concerne les réformes et les restructurations dont les systèmes de santé publique ont fait l’objet au cours des dernières années. Ce rapport s’appuie sur des rapports antérieurs et...