Séminaires IPSY - IPSY Seminars

Louvain-La-Neuve

Seminar agenda (Persons from outside the IPSY institute are invited to contact the seminar organizer)
Agenda des séminaires (Les personnes extérieures à l’institut IPSY sont invitées à prendre contact avec l’organisateur·trice du séminaire)

2020

 

!! Until May 16th, all IPSY seminars are cancelled or postponed / Jusqu'au 16 mai, tous les séminaires IPSY sont annulés ou reportés !!

 

Mercredi 18 novembre (2020) à 12h30
Socrate 40

Comment aider les élèves à apprendre en réduisant les exigences superflues ?
Professeur André Tricot, Université de Toulouse (France)

Le séminaire sera précédé d’un lunch avec sandwiches à midi
Inscriptions au plus tard le mercredi 11 novembre : nadine.fraselle@uclouvain.be

Apprendre à l’école demande des efforts : il faut être attentif, se concentrer, réfléchir. Pour certains élèves, comme pour nous tous dans certaines situations, ces efforts sont parfois hors de portée. La théorie de la charge cognitive a pour objectif d’identifier des moyens d’optimiser les ressources cognitives des élèves lors d’apprentissages scolaires. Ces moyens consistent essentiellement à supprimer les informations non-pertinentes dans la situation scolaire et à concevoir la tâche la moins exigeante possible, pour maintenir des exigences là où elles sont importantes : l’apprentissage de connaissances. Depuis une trentaine d’années, les travaux dans ce domaine ont identifié 15 techniques qui permettent ainsi d’aider les élèves à apprendre. L’objectif de cette conférence est de présenter cette approche et ces quinze techniques. A la fin de la conférence je présenterai quelques résultats qui montrent que le temps aussi est une ressource pour apprendre, et que nous pouvons l’optimiser.

Invitant.es : B. Galand et S. Colognesi


Friday 12th June - 2 pm
Room E139

Mental State Inference as a Gating Mechanism to Cognitive and Affective Processes
Lasana T. Harris University College London

People flexibly infer mental states—think about the minds of others. This spontaneous psychological process imbues social targets with full humanity, or denies them full humanity when withheld. Mental state inferences can trigger or inhibit other psychological processes, including logical reasoning, learning, economic valuation, and empathic responses. Here, I discuss behavioural and brain evidence for this gating mechanism across economic and legal contexts. Specifically, I discuss research where people are commoditised, tortured, or engaged in collusion, and highlight the influence of mental state inferences on cognitive and affective psychological processes.

Invited by: Pierre Maurage, Stéphanie Demoulin, Florence Stinglhamber


Mercredi 10 juin à 15h00
Local E139

Modifications du sommeil associées à la consommation excessive d’alcool : liens avec les altérations cérébrales et cognitives
Alice Laniepce
, : Université de Caen / Université de Rouen

En amont du développement de complications neurologiques sévères telles que le syndrome de Korsakoff (SK), les patients ayant un Trouble de l’Usage d’Alcool (TUAL) présentent des altérations cérébrales et cognitives de nature et de sévérité variables, ainsi que des troubles du sommeil. Bien qu’il soit clairement établi que le sommeil contribue au fonctionnement cérébral et cognitif, son implication comme facteur explicatif des atteintes cérébrales et cognitives dans le TUAL reste peu documentée. L’objectif de cette présentation sera de proposer une vision intégrée des modifications du sommeil (à la fois subjectives et objectives) liées à la consommation chronique et excessive d’alcool en décrivant les similarités et les différences observées selon la forme clinique étudiée (TUAL versus SK). Puis, nous préciserons le rôle de la sévérité du syndrome de sevrage sur les modifications de l’architecture du sommeil chez les patients TUAL récemment abstinents. Enfin, nous présenterons les données suggérant une implication du sommeil dans la physiopathologie des atteintes structurales et cognitives liées à l’alcool. Sur le plan clinique, nos études soulignent la nécessité d’évaluer et de traiter les troubles du sommeil en addictologie afin d’améliorer le pronostic des patients à la sortie des services hospitaliers.

Invitant·tes : Pierre maurage & Louvain Experimental Psychopathology (LEP) Research Group


Thursday, May 28 - 10 am
Room E139

Childhood adversities, interoception and emotion regulation in alcohol use disorders
Andrzej Jakubczyk & Maciej Kopera, Université de Varsovie (Pologne)

Childhood adversities, interoception (the way one perceives internal, somatic stimuli from the body) and emotion dysregulation have been all linked to the risk of development and course of alcohol use disorders (AUD). During the session, associations between all these factors will be discussed basing on recent findings from the study performed at the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw. Specifically, dr. Jakubczyk will present on how interoceptive accuracy and sensibility may affect emotion regulation and how resilience to pain (specific interoceptive stimulus) may mediate the association between childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation. Dr. Kopera will present results of two studies on different (clinical and non-clinical) populations. The first study was aimed at investigating if the presence of risky alcohol use during the developmental age would influence the relationship between childhood adversity and mental states recognition in early adulthood. The second study assessed, whether the transgression from risky alcohol use to AUD would influence the trauma-mentalization relationship in another treatment seeking AUD sample. Results of all presented studies will be discussed in the context of possible clinical implications for treatment of AUD.

Invited by: Pierre Maurage & LEP


Mardi 19 mai de 10h30 à 12h30
Salle E139

Que peuvent apporter les recherches sur l’enseignement à la formation des professeurs ?
Roland Goigoux, Université Clermont-Auvergne

Roland Goigoux prendra appui sur son expérience de formateur d’enseignants pour suggérer de profondes modifications dans les relations entre décideurs, chercheurs, formateurs et enseignants. Il défendra sa vision de la co-conception d’outils didactiques et du rôle de ceux-ci peuvent jouer dans le développement professionnel des enseignants. Il interrogera à ce propos les rapports entre les sciences de la cognition et de l’éducation à un moment où les premières affichent des prétentions importantes sur les questions d’enseignement. Il indiquera enfin cinq éléments de structuration d’un plan de formation des professeurs fondé sur une analyse de l’activité d’enseignement (planification, régulation, motivation, explicitation, différenciation).

Invitants : Benoît Galand, Sébastien Delisse


Thursday 7th May 11 am
Room: Salle du conseil A224

Cognitive Control Training Enhances Emotion Regulation
Noga Cohen,The Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Israel

Adaptive behavior depends on the ability to effectively regulate emotional responses. Failure in the regulation of emotional arousal can result in heightened physiological reactions and disruptive behavioral performance. In turn, these behavioral and physiological alternations can
lead to various psychopathologies. In several studies we demonstrated that training cognitive control, an attentional mechanism that enables goal-directed behavior, lead to reduced emotional interference by aversive pictures. This training was also associated with a reduction in amygdala activation to aversive pictures and with an increase in amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. Moreover, we showed that training individuals to recruit cognitive control prior to the presentation of unpleasant pictures enhances their ability to regulate an upsetting personal event using reappraisal.
These findings suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognitive control is essential for maintaining adaptive behavior and may be impaired in individuals with emotion regulation deficits.

Invited by: Alexandre Heeren


Thursday, April 30 - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224

Neural Processing and Perception of Speech in Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Axelle Calcus, Laboratoire des Systèmes Perceptifs, Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris, France) 

Mild (21-40 dB HL) or moderate (41-70 dB HL) sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) can lead to persistent changes to the cortical processing of speech sounds. This was evidenced in a recent study conducted on 46, 8- to 16-year old children with MMHL and 44 normally- hearing (NH) age-matched controls (Calcus et al., 2019). While present in younger children with MMHL, there was no significant MMN in older children with MMHL. However, to date no studies have examined speech processing at the subcortical level in children with MMHL, yet this is known to be linked to speech perception in noise (SIN) in NH children. Moreover, the effects of amplification on the neural encoding of speech remain poorly understood, with previous data suggesting a benefit at the subcortical but not the cortical level.
Here, I will present a study aiming to investigate (1) the subcortical and cortical processing of speech sounds in children with MMHL, (2) the relation with SIN, and (3) the effects of amplification on the neural processing of speech, for children with MMHL. Behavioural  thresholds were measured at 70 dB SPL for consonant identification in both steady and fluctuating noise. Subcortical and cortical EEG activity evoked by speech stimuli were simultaneously recorded in 18, 8- to 16-year old children with MMHL and 15 age-matched NH  controls. The frequency-following-response (FFR) and MMN were used as indeces of speech processing at the subcortical and cortical levels, respectively. For the MMHL group, stimuli were presented both unamplified (70 dB SPL), and with a frequency-specific gain (without compression) based on their individual audiograms. Behavioural thresholds were poorer for children with MMHL than NH controls, whatever the background noise. At the subcortical level, children with MMHL showed a smaller FFR than NH controls’ in the unamplified condition. With simulated amplification, the FFR of the MMHL group was comparable to that of NH controls. However, the relationship between subcortical encoding of speech and SIN was not significant. At the cortical level, there was no significant MMN in children with MMHL presented with either unamplified or amplified speech.
The neural processing of unamplified speech may be impaired at both subcortical and cortical levels in children with MMHL. Moreover, amplification may benefit auditory processing at subcortical but not cortical levels in this group. I will offer two alternative explanations for our findings: increasing multi-sensory integration at successive levels of the auditory system, and/or later maturation of the auditory cortex compared to the inferior colliculus.

Invited by: Olivier Collignon, Ceren Battal


Jeudi 19 et vendredi 20 mars
Salle Urbain Vaes, place Rabelais (LSM) 

3 Séminaires organisés par Vincent Yzerbyt, Olivier Corneille, Marine Rougier et Adrien Mierop

          1. Jeudi 19 mars à 10h45

Appliquer les paradigmes de cognition sociale impliciteà des populations d’enfants
Odile Rohmer, Université de Strasbourg

Les travaux en cognition sociale ont largement montré l’intérêt d’accéder aux attitudes et jugements automatiques pour comprendre les comportements humains. Toutefois, la majorité de ces travaux se sont centrés sur des échantillons d’adultes, laissant en suspens les questions relatives à ces phénomènes chez les enfants. Ce constat est surprenant puisqu’il est sans doute plus difficile aux enfants qu’aux adultes d’exprimer verbalement ce qu’ils ressentent ou croient. En effet, les enfants n’ont généralement pas accès aux mots nécessaires pour exprimer leurs états ou leurs pensées internes (Cvencek & Meltzoff, 2015). Ils peuvent également juger prudent de se valoriser face aux adultes et ainsi répondre aux attentes supposées des adultes.
En conséquence de la rareté des travaux auprès d’enfants, peu d’outils ont été développés pour accéder aux processus automatiques de jugement chez les enfants. Pour pallier à cela, nous développons actuellement deux protocoles : le premier protocole (VAAST-enfant), a pour ambition de mesurer les attitudes d’enfants de 6 à 10 ans. Nous présenterons les résultats issus d’un programme de recherche visant à mesurer les attitudes d’enfants du primaire, envers des enfants porteurs d’autisme. Le second protocole, basé sur une tâche d’amorçage, a pour vocation de mesurer les jugements des enfants, en termes de chaleur et compétence. Il est actuellement testé pour mesurer le jugement de soi de collégiens, en fonction de leur réussite scolaire.

         2. Jeudi 19 mars à 17h15

         La Régulation Sociale des Fonctionnements Cognitifs : Primates non Humains, Humains, Robots Humanoïdes
       
 Pascal Huguet, Université de Clermont-Auvergne

Les processus cognitifs sont le plus souvent ancrés dans des contextes sociaux, lesquels néanmoins demeurent assez négligés en psychologie cognitive et dans toute une partie des neurosciences intégratives. Or, comme le soulignait déjà Howard Gardner dans son ouvrage sur la révolution cognitive, parce qu’ils sont au centre de l’expérience humaine, il est fort probable que toute science qui tente d’exclure ces contextes est vouée à l’échec. Notre communication offre de nouveaux arguments en faveur d’une régulation sociale des processus étudiés par la psychologie d’orientation strictement cognitive, en particulier ceux impliqués dans le contrôle inhibiteur chez les primates humains et nonhumains. Nous montrons que, dans les deux espèces considérées, cette fonction évoluée ne s’exprime pas indépendamment de dynamiques en rapport avec la présence des congénères (voire de pseudo-congénères humanoïdes chez les humains) et des rapports d’évaluation et/ou de domination auxquels cette présence peut donner lieu. D’autres travaux révèlent que, pour des activités cognitives pourtant identiques, des neurones différents entrent en jeu selon qu’un congénère est présent ou absent, suggérant le caractère fondamental de cet élément de base du contexte social dans la dynamique neuronale elle-même. Tous ces résultats contribuent à montrer le potentiel d’interface de la  psychologie sociale expérimentale avec des disciplines aussi diverses que la primatologie, la neurophysiologie, ou la robotique. Leurs implications sont nombreuses, pour l’étude de la cognition et la compréhension du « cerveau social », mais aussi pour la reproductibilité des résultats en psychologie de la cognition et les pratiques de la recherche en sciences du comportement.
 

3. Vendredi 20 mars à 12h15

Du laboratoire aux situations réelles d'évaluation à forts enjeux
Isabelle Régner, Université Aix-Marseille

Les effets des stéréotypes sociaux sur le fonctionnement cognitif sont désormais bien documentés grâce à de nombreuses expériences réalisées en laboratoire. Deux ensembles de recherches seront présentés, insistant sur l’étude de ces effets en situations réelles d’évaluation à forts enjeux. Le premier porte sur les effets de menace du stéréotype chez les personnes âgées. Nos résultats indiquent que les stéréotypes négatifs du vieillissement contribuent à dégrader les performances mnésiques des personnes âgées saines, et conduisent à surestimer le nombre de participant.e.s supposé.e.s présenter un déficit cognitif léger, considéré comme l’état prodromal de la Maladie d’Alzheimer (MA). Ces résultats nous ont conduit à étudier ces phénomènes pour la première fois dans le cadre de l’examen neuropsychologique clinique, lors du diagnostic précoce de la MA. Le deuxième ensemble de recherches concerne les effets des stéréotypes de genre en Sciences. Après avoir montré dans plusieurs études comment et sous quelles conditions ces stéréotypes détériorent la performance des femmes en Sciences, nous avons examiné s’ils pouvaient conduire des jurys pourtant rigoureux à défavoriser les femmes lors des concours nationaux au CNRS. Les résultats indiquent tout d’abord que les jurys associent davantage hommes et sciences que femmes et sciences. Ensuite, ces associations implicites impactent leur décision lorsqu’ils minimisent l’existence de discrimination à l’encore des femmes. Chez ces jurys, plus les biais implicites sont forts, moins les femmes sont promues. En revanche, lorsque les jurys admettent l’existence de discriminations, les biais implicites ne prédisent plus les décisions de promotion.   


!!!Postponed to a later date!!!

Cognition throughout the lifespan: the power of the bilingual experience
Wouter Duyck
, Ghent University

Research has shown that both languages of a bilingual are always active. However, at the same time, bilinguals suffer only rarely for cross-language intrusions due to these interactions. This suggests an efficient mechanism for language control in bilinguals. Research has shown that the neural circuits used for this language control overlap with those recruited for cognitive functions. As a result, the mental exercise implied by bilingualism has been demonstrated to yield cognitive advantages beyond the verbal domain. In the present talk, I will briefly discuss the mechanisms involved in bilingual lexical access, language control, and the effects of bilingualism on general cognition. For children, I will present data on effects of bilingual immersion schooling on intelligence. For adults, I will present data demonstrating behavioral and neural changes resulting from translator/interpreter training. For older people, I will present data showing that the clinical onset of Alzheimer’s disease may be delayed by four years in bilinguals, relative to monolinguals.

Invited by: Arnaud Szmalec, Bernard Hanseeuw


Thursday, March 5th - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224

Neural Representations of Faces Are Tuned to Eye Movements
Roberto Caldara
, University of Fribourg, Department of Psychology, Switzerland

Eye movements provide a functional signature on how human vision is achieved, with human faces eliciting distinct eye movement patterns during identity and emotional expression decoding. Nonetheless, a fundamental question remains debated: are such face processing biological-skills governed by universal perceptual processes? It has long been presumed that this is the case. However, over the past decade our work has called into question this widely held assumption. First of all, we have demonstrated that the face system relies on different strategies to perform a range of face processing tasks with comparable levels of efficiency across cultures. Commonalities aside, we found that Westerners distribute local fixations across the eye and mouth regions, whereas Easterners preferentially deploy central, global fixations during face recognition. Moreover, during the recognition of facial expressions of emotion, Westerners fixate the mouth relatively more to discriminate across expressions, whereas Easterners favor the eye region. This difference is corroborated by the use of culture-specific emoticons with Westerners using the mouth for the expressions of happiness and sadness:-) :-( and Easterners, the eyes ^_^ T_T . Finally, we have recently shown that eye movements play a functional role during face processing by providing the neural system with the information that is diagnostic to a specific observer. The way humans perceive the world and process faces is determined by experience and environmental factors and it is governed by idiosyncratic rather than universal representations.

Invited by: Valérie Goffaux 


Mardi 3 mars de 11h00 à 12h30
Local : E139

Forces et faiblesses du modèle de l'alternance en formation
Jean-Luc Gurtner, 
Université de Fribourg (Suisse)

La fréquentation alternée de lieux de formation différents est une caractéristique constitutive de très nombreux systèmes de formation professionnalisante. Ainsi on n'imaginerait plus une formation à l'enseignement, une formation technique ou une formation dans le domaine de la santé sans périodes de pratique professionnelle ou sans cours théoriques.
Malgré son usage très répandu, un tel modèle peine cependant souvent à dépasser la simple succession de temps d'école et de temps de terrain plus ou moins longs, plus ou moins récurrents, sans grande articulation.
Certes, on rencontre volontiers dans les programmes de formation des espaces dévolus à cette articulation, nommés tantôt analyses de pratiques, séminaires d'intégration, unités d'articulation théorie-pratique, ateliers de préparation au stage, etc, mais ce qu'on y fait réellement dépend grandement de la personne qui en a la charge et reste souvent très général et très peu relié aux expériences et aux situations réelles de chaque apprenant. Divers outils comme le rapport de stage, le dossier de formation ou le portfolio professionnel, par exemple, permettent également de rapatrier dans l'autre lieu une synthèse des expériences faites "de l'autre côté". Mais le statut ambigu de ces outils – support de réflexion ou objet d'évaluation – conduit bien souvent les apprenants à les utiliser de manière peu productive pour les apprentissages ultérieurs.
Au niveau théorique enfin, différents concepts et métaphores ont été proposés pour qualifier les enjeux et les attentes liées à la situation d'alternance et aux apprentissages en contextes multiples, tels que "connectivity", "boundary crossing", "expansive learning", etc...
Dans mon intervention, je développerai la thèse que l'exploitation de métaphores s'avère une démarche prometteuse pour réfléchir à la situation d'alternance mais qu'on peut et doit aller beaucoup plus loin dans cette recherche si l'on veut exploiter au mieux tout le potentiel de l'alternance comme modalité d'apprentissages complexes.

Invitant·tes : Benoît Galand,  Noémie Baudoin


Jeudi 27 février à 13h00
Local : Socr 27

L’entrainement à la communication hypnotique pour gérer la douleur procédurale en oncologie pédiatrique : une étude pilote
Jennifer Aramideh, David Ogez, Université de Montréal

Les traitements d’un cancer pédiatrique confrontent les jeunes patients à des douleurs procédurales qu’il est utile de prendre en charge. Parmi les alternatives non pharmacologiques, l’utilisation de la communication hypnotique s’est montrée efficace selon de nombreuses recherches. Les études d’évaluation menées dans ce contexte sont toutefois complexes, car il est important de pouvoir soutenir une acquisition des techniques hypnotiques avant de les évaluer. Dans cette conférence, nous nous intéresserons particulièrement à définir une méthodologie pour évaluer la communication hypnotique et présenterons une étude de faisabilité menée au CHU Sainte-Justine. Concrètement, les objectifs de cette conférence sont (1) introduire le protocole d’entrainement à la communication hypnotique en oncologie pédiatrique ; (2) présenter la méthodologie de recherche en acquisition de compétence à la communication hypnotique ; (3) présenter les résultats d’une étude de faisabilité menée en oncologie pédiatrique.

Invitants : Emmanuelle Zech & PCLab


Thursday, February 27 - 11 am
Room E139

Automatic and controlled processes in the acquisition and extinction of fear
Gaëtan Mertens
, Utrecht University

For some years, there has been ongoing debate in the literature on the relative contribution of controlled and automatic processes in the acquisition and extinction of fear. Particularly, some influential models have argued that conditioned fear largely originates from subcortical fear structures that operate largely automatically (i.e., outside of awareness, with minimal sensory input, involuntary, and outside of cognitive control processes) (e.g., LeDoux & Pine, 2016). Alternatively, other models have argued that fear acquisition and extinction learning are critically dependent on awareness and controlled cognitive processes (e.g., Lovibond, 2011). I will present data concerning the role of verbal instructions, awareness and inferential reasoning processes in fear acquisition and extinction that critically challenges the former and supports the latter class of models. Furthermore, I will argue that this debate is not only interesting from a theoretical perspective, but also influences the therapeutic practices that are employed and new interventions that are being developed for the treatment of fear and anxiety. Finally, I will conclude this talk with giving a brief overview of ongoing and future research projects within this line of research (e.g., symbolic processes in fear conditioning, expectation effects in psychotherapy).

Invited by: Olivier Corneille, Pierre Philippot, Alexandre Heeren, Pierre Maurage


Thursday, February 20 - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224

A novel framework for the neural organization of action and object knowledge
Moritz Wurm, Trento University

How is knowledge about things and events in the world organized in the brain? Popular theories suggest a major division between occipitotemporal and frontoparietal cortex in representing object and action information, respectively. Here I challenge this view by taking a closer look at the neural pathway of action recognition and understanding: In a series of fMRI-based MVPA studies, I show that critical levels of action representation – from basic perceptual action precursors (such as body movements toward different types of entities) to perceptually invariant representations of action meaning – can be localized in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) rather than frontoparietal areas. Moreover, the representational organization of actions in LOTC follows salient semantic principles and appears topographically aligned with related object representations. Based on these findings, I propose an updated model of knowledge organization in occipitotemporal cortex.

Invited by: Gilles Vannuscorps


Thursday, February 20 - 11 am
Room: Socr 27

Understanding Subjectivity in the Age of Superdiversity: Lessons from London and Beirut
Nikolay Mintchev
, University College London

The nature of cultural and ethnic diversity is changing in many cities across the globe. Migration flows from multiple parts of the world, as well as histories of sustained arrival and settlement over decades, have led to a proliferation of difference in urban social fabrics. This has produced social patterns of ‘superdiversity’, characterised by multiple ethnic/cultural differences, as well as differences in class, immigration status, religion, language, and political orientations that cut across cultural identity. What happens to the subject in such conditions of superdiversity? How does the subject experience itself and others when differences are ubiquitous in everyday life, and when long-established modes of self-other relations are reconfigured? How does the subject navigate the conflicting experiences of everyday superdiversity and the rise of populist politics? Drawing on psychoanalytic theory, ethnographic research and qualitative interview data from London and Beirut, this talk explores new ways of thinking about subjectivity in order to more adequately respond to the changing social realities of the twenty-first century.
Dr Nikolay Mintchev is a research associate at the Institute for Global Prosperity at University College London. He specialises in the themes of ethnic identity and subjectivity in psychoanalysis and the social sciences. His latest publication (co-authored with Henrietta L. Moore) is “Brexit’s Identity Politics and the Question of Subjectivity” (2019) which appears in Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society.

Invited by: Jochem Willemsen


Wednesday February 19 - 9 am
Room E139

In Search of Explanations for the Medically Unexplained: Models and Mechanisms of Chronic Somatic Symptom Distress
 Michaël Witthöft
, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Germany

Chronic somatic symptom distress (as e.g. characteristic of chronic pain, somatoform disorders, and functional somatic syndromes) represents a widespread and disabling clinical condition of transdiagnostic relevance. Compared to other areas of psychopathology (e.g. affective and anxiety disorders), clinical conditions marked by chronic somatic symptoms represent a relatively neglected and poorly understood area. By using correlational as well as experimental methods, we aimed at developing and testing models of chronic somatic symptom distress. Results of taxometric analyses and structural equation modeling favor a dimensional approach and identified a bifactor model as the best fitting model in which the variability of somatic symptom distress is simultaneously explained by a general factor representing a cognitive-affective component of symptom perception and symptom specific factors that reflect sensory aspects of symptom perception. Experimental studies focusing on interoceptive information processing suggest that chronic somatic symptom distress is associated with less accurate cardiac interoception. The results are in line with a Bayesian predictive processing model of chronic somatic symptom distress. Implications for promising novel treatments for patients with chronic somatic symptoms will be discussed.

Invited by: Olivier Luminet, Laboratoire Illuminetti - IGIA (interest group on interoception and alexithymia)


Thursday, February 6 - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224

The untangling the nature of category selectivity in the ventral visual pathway
J. Brendan Ritchie, KULeuven

The end stage of the ventral visual pathway is characterized by a category-based representation of objects. The nature of this category selectivity is ill-understood. Two major factors emerge from the literature.
On one hand, the search for category-selective regions with maximal selectivity has shown the presence of a few such regions for a small minority of categories, such as faces and other body parts (Downing et al., 2016). On the other hand, analyses of the distributed pattern of selectivity across occipitotemporal cortex at large have emphasized the dominance of more encompassing dimensions, in particular the animate-inanimate continuum (Connolly et al., 2012; Kriegeskorte et al., 2008; Sha et al. 2015).
Here we present an experimental paradigm that is designed to dissociate the two hypotheses. Animate stimuli consisted of a single close-up face and full-body image of 24 animals from different biological classes (48 images total). These were contrasted with images of natural objects. We collected data for behavioral tasks including judgments for pair-wise face and body similarity, and similarity to human faces and bodies. The responses from these tasks were used to construct dissimilarity matrices (DM) to perform representational similarity analysis, and compared with DMs constructed from neural responses from ventral pathway regions selective for objects, faces, and bodies measured with human fMRI (N = 15). We found that while the face-body division dominated the organization of the pathway, a weaker animacy continuum effect was also observed. The animacy continuum effect was also preserved when analyzing face and body responses separately.

Invited by: Olivier Collignon, Federica Falagiarda


Mercredi 5 février à 16h30
Socrate 40

Why people believe false information despite knowing better
Professeur Christian Unkelbach, University of Cologne (Germany)

Le séminaire sera suivi d’un drink à 18h00
Inscriptions au plus tard le mercredi 29 janvier : nadine.fraselle@uclouvain.be

The modern world experiences strategic misinformation, fake news, and the apparent loss of belief in traditionally credible sources such as universities. Thus, the question of how and why people believe information to be true is a prominent research topic. I will approach this question from a Brunswikian perspective: Truth is a distal concept that cannot be assessed directly. Instead, people must use cues that may be indicative of information’s factual truth status. I will distinguish between two broad classes of cues, namely informational cues (e.g., knowledge sources, advice) and experiential cues (e.g., familiarity, fluency). The former cues may be misleading; that is, a source may be faulty or advice may be wrong. The latter cues are a priori true; if information feels familiar or is processed fluently, the experience has an inherent truth value. With this assumption, one may explain and predict when and why people believe false information despite knowing better. I will present several experiments that pit these two classes of cues against each other and show that they jointly inform judgments of truth. However, if the cues contradict each other, people still use the experiential cue, even for highly relevant topics and with tangible costs for themselves in an incentivized paradigm. The present framework thereby provides a basis for explaining false beliefs and suggest novel paths for debunking false information.

Invitant.es : O. Corneille,avec O. Luminet, V. Yzerbyt, S. Demoulin


Thursday, February 6 - 11 am
Room: salle du conseil A224

Understanding substance use in adolescence and emerging adulthood: epidemiological and psychometrical perspectives
Stéphanie Baggio
, Hôpitaux Universitaire de Genève, Suisse

Substance use initiation and escalation are major health concerns and it is crucial to understand how adolescents start to use substances and how they may progress through the drug course. This presentation will first explain how initiation and escalation of substance use occur and which key features should be targeted to develop efficient preventive interventions. Then, we will focus on screening for substance use disorders, as current screening tools are imprecise and can lead to an overestimation of “addicted” individuals. We will discuss in detail the current issues and future challenges to assess adequately substance use disorders, and in our case, alcohol use disorder. Of critical interest will be the focus on methodological and psychometrical challenges in the measurement of substance use.

Invited by: Alexandre Heeren & Pierre Maurage


Jeudi 30 janvier à 12h30
Socrate 40

Social Life in a Dynamic World: The Role of Cognitive Flexibility in Maintaining Social Anxiety
Professeure Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, University of Bar Ilan, Tel Aviv (Israël)

Le séminaire sera précédé d’un lunch avec sandwiches à midi
Inscriptions au plus tard le jeudi 23 janvier : nadine.fraselle@uclouvain.be

Navigating dynamic and multi-faceted social environment is challenging to many. Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) find such navigation as particularly daunting. Negative evaluations of self and others are postulated to contribute to the maintenance of SAD. Importantly, these evaluations appear to be resistant to change even when inconsistent information is clearly presented. Delineating factors alleviating this resistance may remove key obstacles to treatment effectiveness, and assist in detecting contributors to the maintenance of SA. Cognitive flexibility (CF) is one such factor. A central component of CF is the ability to update beliefs and modify behaviors in response to dynamically unfolding information. I will present research addressing the role of flexibility in SAD using novel learning-based paradigms. In addition, I will present data suggesting that CF in other-evaluations predicts SA-related distress (post-event processing, social behavior) and SA-severity. Exploring CF in the context of dynamic social interactions and its role in the formation, revision, and maintenance of social bonds will be discussed.

Invitant.es : P. Philippot,

avec P. Maurage, A. Heeren, C. Douilliez, S. Agrigoroaei, Ph. De Timary (IoNS)

 


Thursday, January 30 - 10 am
Room E139

In control? How emotional and physiological states impact impulsive actions and decisions - the relationship to alcohol use
Aleksandra Herman
, Royal Holloway, University of London

Impulsivity refers to both a stable personality trait and a set of behaviours which undergo momentary changes depending on the current circumstances. Impulsivity plays a vital role in daily life as well as clinical practice as it is associated with drug misuse and certain neuropsychiatric conditions. Because of its great health and well-being importance, it is crucial to understand factors which modulate impulsive behaviours. In this talk, I am going to present research using a variety of methods, including behavioural testing, physiological recordings, psychopharmacology and neuroimaging, investigating the role of emotions and physiological arousal as modulators of impulsive actions and decisions in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that changes in internal bodily state are related to behavioural impulsivity level. Staying more attuned to those changes and finding adaptive ways to adjust behaviour according to bodily needs might be vital to reducing impulsivity levels. I will also discuss how it might be relevant to alcohol use initiation and progression.

Invited by: Pierre Maurage & LEP


Monday, January 13th - 11 am
Room E139

Multifamily group therapy: An excellent tool for recovery
Gilbert Lemmens
, Ghent University (Dpt Psychiatry) & Ghent University Hospital, Belgium

Mental disorders have an important impact on families. Parents, children and/or siblings are often burdened by them and different domains of the family functioning are affected. At the same time, the family remains the primary source of support and recovery for the mentally ill family member. But, substantial barriers to involve family members in treatment still exist. Multi-family group therapy may offer a valuable treatment option to create room for the stories of the families living with mental disorders, to increase family resilience and recovery and to offer the families a more central role in treatment. During the presentation current outcome multi-family group research will be discussed. Further, potential therapeutic factors within the family groups and their implications for the clinical practice will be explained.
Prof. dr. Gilbert MD Lemmens is a psychiatrist and family therapist and is head of the Dept. of Psychiatry at the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). He lectures psychiatry and is a trainer in couple, family and systemic therapy at the Ghent University (Belgium).

Moïra mikolajczak, Isabelle Roskam


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