Séminaires IPSY

Agenda des séminaires (Les personnes extérieures à l’institut IPSY sont invitées à prendre contact avec l’organisateur du séminaire)

2019


 

Jeudi 28 février à 13h00
Salle du conseil A224

Seeing minds in motion: How is the perception of animacy connected to the rest of the mind?
Ben Van Buren
, KU Leuven

The goal of vision science is to figure out how we see. But perhaps an even more foundational question is: What do we see? Beyondseemingly simple features such as color and shape, recent work suggests that visual processing also extracts properties that are more intuitively associated with higher-level thought – such as the animacy and intentionality. Psychologists have long marveled at demonstrations in which simple moving shapes look alive and goal-directed (e.g. when they appear to be ‘chasing’ each other, or ‘trying’ to satisfy certain goals).However, this phenomenon has often been treated as an isolated curiosity, without a clear relationship to the rest of the mind. In this talk, I will present evidence that the perception of animacy and intentionality is connected to other perceptual and cognitive processes in far richer ways than have been previously imagined – interacting with and supporting several phenomena of perceived eye gaze, and profoundly influencing nearly all aspects of cognitive processing, including goal-directed behavior, memory, attention, and visual awareness. This work collectively shows how processes of social perception can provide a rich foundation for higher-level thought and behavior.

Invitant : Gilles Vannucorps


Mardi 22 janvier de 9h00 à 10h30
Local : Socr 23

L’apport du chien d’assistance chez l’enfant aveugle entre 2 et 3 ans. Etude longitudinale et comparative
Anna Galiano
, Université Lumière Lyon 2

La vision occupe une place importante dans le développement du jeune enfant. Elle est impliquée, entre autres, dans les acquisitions des habilités sensori-motrices, langagières, dans la construction de l’image de soi, de la représentation du monde qui l’entoure, dans les dynamiques relationnelles avec autrui. La survenue d’une déficience visuelle peut engendrer des perturbations développementales si l’enfant ne fait pas l’objet d’une prise en charge précoce et adaptée. Elles concernent trois domaines : le développement des compétences motrices (l’acquisition de la marche, de la motricité globale et fine), le développement des compétences socio-cognitives (l’acquisition du langage et l’utilisation du langage en contexte) et psycho-affectives (les relations d’attachement).
Les observations sur l’enfant voyant indiquent clairement des bénéfices issus de la relation chien-enfant. Ces bénéfices concernent le développement émotionnel, moteur, mais aussi les dynamiques relationnelles dans le cadre des interactions dans et en dehors de la famille. Des études portant sur des enfants atypiques, notamment des enfants avec un trouble envahissant du développement ou avec un retard mental, montrent qu’un médiateur animal peut avoir une influence positive dans le processus de développement de ces compétences. En particulier, ces études s’intéressent au médiateur canin et indiquent que la présence de celui-ci apporte un bénéfice tant à court terme qu’à long terme. Ce bénéfice est observé sur des aspects comportementaux, relationnels et physiologiques (par ex. réduction de stress).
Partant de ces constatations, nous nous sommes intéressés au chien d’assistance et à son apport pour des enfants aveugles de naissance en bas âge. Les premiers résultats issus de la première cohorte seront présentés et discutés.

Invitantes : Mariane Frenay, Marie-Anne Schelstraete, Anne Bragard


Jeudi 17 janvier à 13h00
Salle du conseil A224

Isabelle Mareschal, Queen Mary University of London

Invitante : Valérie Goffaux


 

 

2018


Lundi 17 décembre de 10h30 à 12h00
local E139

Religion and positive emotions in the body: How our postures change how we feel and why it matters for religious behaviors to be (Présentation en anglais)
Dr. Patty Van Cappellen, Duke University, USA

Research in psychology suggests that our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are influenced by not only our mind but also our body’s experiences (e.g., posture).  Across religions, worshippers adopt specific postures that may not simply be arbitrary customs but instead be closely intertwined with their religious experience. In this talk, I discuss empirical data on worship and prayer postures adopted by Christians in the U.S. In a first study, 682 Christian church attendees completed a questionnaire after a Sunday service. I present data showing the variety of postures adopted during that Sunday service and the purported meanings attributed to them. I also show that the postures participants reported adopting at service were related to their emotions, prayer orientations, and perceptions of God during that service. Specifically, reports of using more postures that are expansive and directed upwards were related with more positive emotions and praise whereas using more postures that are constrictive and directed downward were related with feeling closer to God and confession. Then, across two experimental studies, we investigated whether assuming two common religious postures would influence people’s emotions. Results consistently revealed that participants asked to adopt an up-oriented religious posture (gaze is up, hands are raised) reported more positive emotions than participants asked to adopt a down-oriented religious posture (gaze is down, hands are folded). This research stands to document the understudied links between postures and religious experience, placing the locus of religion beyond the mind or the brain: in the full body. In conclusion, I integrate these findings in a new theoretical model showcasing the importance of positive emotions to support religious behaviors maintenance.

Invitant·e(s) Vassilis Saroglou et le centre de psychologie de la religion


 

PSY Symposium

Neuropsychology Perception and Action: Improvements in diagnosis, rehabilitation

27th November 2018, 14.00 – 16.00
Local : A224 Salle du Conseil; Psychologie

Chaired by Martin Edwards (martin.edwards@uclouvain.be)

 

14.00     Yves Rossetti (INSERM, Lyon, France)

Boosting and reactivating prism adaptation with tDCS:  implications for cognitive rehabilitation: Although Prism adaptation has become the most studied and acknowledged technique to alleviate spatial neglect, some patients do not show sustained improvement and some do not respond. We explore tDCS effects on prism adaptation in three ways: First, we showed that applying tDCS during prism exposure increases the retention of sensori-motor after-effects. Second, we showed that tDCS can re-activate dormant circuits of prism adaptation following the disappearance of after-effects. Third, we showed that combining tDCS with prism adaptation produced a long-lasting therapeutic effect in patients no longer responding to standard prism adaptation

14.45     Michael Andres (Université catholique de Louvain)

Modulation of spatial attention with transcranial electric stimulation: The dominant approach in the rehabilitation of neglect consists in training visual exploration of the neglected side through spatial cueing. This approach fosters the awareness of the deficit and improves spatial behaviour in the clinical setting but not in everyday life. We assume with others that the difficulties of neglect patients persist in everyday life because compensatory strategies require them to pay attention, on a voluntary basis, in a context of limited resources. We will first illustrate this point by showing how multi-tasking may inform us about the residual difficulties of neglect patients. We will then evaluate the possibility to boost attention resources using transcranial electric stimulation. We will present two neuromodulation experiments conducted in healthy individuals performing visual detection or cancellation tasks. Our results suggest that transcranial electric stimulation may help counteracting spatial biases in neglect but they also indicate that its mechanism of action is unrelated to inter-hemispheric competition, which has been considered as the main rationale for neurorehabilitation so far. We will discuss the implications of our findings for the evaluation of neglect and for the design of effective interventions using transcranial electric stimulation.

15.30     Magdalena Ietswaart (University of Stirling, Scotland, UK)        

                1. Improving neglect assessment; 2. Action representations in apraxia

This talk will have two parts, one looking at right parietal patients and the other looking at left parietal patients. In the first part of the talk, about improving neglect assessment, I will show that although classical line bisection may not be a valid test of neglect, an alternative “endpoints weightings” assessment is. This novel method for administering and analysing line bisection provides an end point weighting bias as a highly sensitive index of the core bias of neglect. The diagnostic value of this neglect assessment is further increased by a second end point measure related to overall attentional investment. In the second part of the talk, about action representation in left hemisphere patients, I will show that patients with apraxia have difficulty selecting the appropriate grasp for object-use due to impaired motor imagery. I will explain how the left inferior parietal lobe is critical for motor imagery, and how apraxia can be understood as an inability to use internal motor representations of object manipulation.

16.15     Break

17.00     PhD Public Defense of Vincenza Montedoro (Auditoire Montesquieu 03)

New insights into the diagnosis, rehabilitation and understanding of hemineglect using new technologies

 


Jeudi 22 novembre à 13h00
Local : Salle du conseil A224

Action at a distance on object–related ventral temporal representations.
Jorge Almeida, Coimbra University

The way the world is represented in visual associative cortex, and in particular in ventral temporal cortex, is relatively impervious to external changes in the stimuli. However, these representations are forged via interactions between network-specific modules. Here I will show how we can causally modulate ventral temporal representations, and overall, network-specific functional nodes,  by disrupting high-level distal associative areas. I used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to stimulate left parietal associative cortex and functional MRI to measure object-related neural responses, and show that representational similarity, categorical discriminability, functional connectivity  within and from ventral temporal cortex are enhanced by excitatory stimulation compared to inhibitory stimulation of left parietal associative cortex, and that overall, dynamics in the tool network are causally affected. These results show that ventral temporal representations and network dynamics can be causally modulated by distal processing.

Invitants : Michael Andres, Gilles Vannuscorps


Vendredi 16 novembre à 12h30 (Le séminaire sera précédé d’un lunch avec sandwiches à midi).
Auditoire Socrate – 240, Bâtiment Michotte Place Cardinal Mercier à Louvain-la-Neuve. Inscriptions au plus tard le vendredi 9 novembre : nadine.fraselle@uclouvain.be

Research-practice partnerships in education: Outcomes, dynamics, and challenges.
Professeur Cynthia E Coburn, 
Northwestern University (USA)

The use of research in government decision making is in the news. After years of initiatives to increase the use of research in policymaking by governments in Europe and the United States, there seems to be a retreat from and, at times, distain for research in some countries. Researchers wonder why some research ends up being influential in policy making while other research does not. Advocates argue that policy makers should be using the best information available to inform consequential decisions, especially when it affects children and youth. In this talk, I discuss what we know as a field about the ways in which research informs policy making. Rather than taking a normative stance, I discuss the nature of decision making in public agencies and the ways in which research enters into these practices, and the role of researchers and the public in this process. I illustrate the discussion with evidence from my own studies of instructional decision making in US public schools. I discuss implications for researchers, policymakers, and the public.

Invitants : M. Frenay, B. Galand, V. März


Jeudi 8 novembre à 13h00
Salle du condeil A224

Attention in natural scenes
Marius Peelen, Donders Institute, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Our daily-life visual environments, such as city streets and living rooms, contain a multitude of objects. Out of this overwhelming amount of sensory information, we must efficiently detect and recognize those objects that are relevant for current goals, a task that is of critical importance for successful behavior. Visual and attention systems have developed and evolved to optimally perform real-world tasks like these, as reflected in the remarkable efficiency of naturalistic object detection. In this talk I will present our work investigating the functional and neural basis of attentional selection in natural scenes. I will present behavioral, fMRI, TMS, and MEG studies that reveal how the brain efficiently resolves competition between objects in cluttered natural scenes, allowing for the rapid neural representation and detection of goal-relevant objects.

Invitant·e(s) : Valérie Goffaux


Mercredi 31 octobre à 16h00
Local E139

Cognition in (social) context: a social-interactionist approach to emergent phenomena.
Alin Coman,
Princeton University

Communication is a fundamental feature of creatures as social as humans. It helps us exchange information, jointly solve problems, and coordinate our actions. Using a social-interactionist approach I will show how communication allows for community-wide synchronization of memories. To illustrate this approach, I will start from a well-established cognitive phenomenon involving memory retrieval, I will then investigate how mnemonic retrieval is influenced by the social context in which it occurs, and, finally, I will explore how memories propagate in social networks to give rise to collective memories. This approach, I will show, could be applied more generally to bridge between micro-level cognitive processes and large-scale social outcomes.

Invitant·e(s) : Vincent Yzerbyt


Mardi 23 octobre à 14h00
Local : Socrate 27

The development of burnout among Finnish student-athletes across the first year of upper secondary school.
Matilda Sorkkila, University of Jyväskylä, Finlande

The present research investigated the co-development of sport and school burnout symptoms (sport- or school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy) among student-athletes during the first year of upper secondary school. Furthermore, the environment- and individual-related predictors of sport and school burnout were examined. 
The participants were student-athletes (N time 1 =391; N time 2 =373) from six Finnish upper secondary sport schools and their 260 mothers and 188 fathers. Athletes and their parents filled out questionnaires at the beginning of upper secondary school. Athletes answered the questionnaires again at the end of the school year, and a subsample of high-level athletes (N=17) was interviewed. Both person- and variable-oriented approaches were used to analyze the data, in addition to a mixed methods approach that combined a quantitative person-oriented approach with a qualitative approach. The results showed that student-athletes were already at risk for symptoms of sport and school burnout in the beginning of upper secondary school. Furthermore, sport and school burnout symptoms increased and became more generalized over time, and school-related exhaustion spilled over into the sport context, which was evident in both the quantitative findings and the athletes’ stories. High individual and parental expectations for a particular domain (sport or school) at the beginning of school were negatively related to burnout in the same domain but positively related to burnout in the other. Sport- and school-related achievement mastery goals protected from cynicism and feelings of inadequacy in the same domain, whereas school-related performance goals predicted cynicism in school over the first year. These findings could be used, for example, by health care professionals for the detection and early prevention of school and sport burnout.

Invitant·e(s) : Isabelle Roskam, Moïra Mikolajczak


Lundi 22 octobre à 14h00
Local : D325

Parental Low Well-being and Daily Distress as Sources of Maladaptive Parenting
Kaisa Aunola
, University of Jyväskylä, Finlande

Verbal expressions like “You should appreciate how much effort I make for you” or “Do not cry, mother is ashamed” are typical examples of psychologically controlling parenting. Psychological control (PC) - defined as “parental behaviors that are intrusive and manipulative of children’s thoughts, feelings, and attachments to parents” (Barber, 1996) - has been linked to various negative outcomes, such as anxiety, depression, behavioral problems, and low achievement, in both children and adolescents in various different cultural settings. In my own research, I have been examining not only the macro-level but also micro-level antecedents and consequences of psychologically controlling parenting. Overall, the results of this research suggest that beside of child characteristics parental low well-being and daily distress play an important role in the use of PC. In order to develop preventive programs to foster adaptive parenting, it is vitally important then to focus on parental well-being and identify the sources of parental distress. These sources can include parental or child characteristics but also lack of social support or cultural values recently evident in the society, for example. The IIPB data will provide excellent possibilities to examine the different sources of parental low well-being and -since in the data collected in Finland measures of parenting behaviors and parental characteristics were also included –those of PC as well.

Invitant·e(s) :  Moïra Mikolajczak, Isabelle Roskam


Jeudi 18 octobre à 13h00
Local : E139

Neuromodulation in addiction: effects on craving and emotion regulation.
Anna Goudriaan
, University of Amsterdam

In the past decades there have been several developments in research and treatment of addictions, ranging from the emergence of low-level easily accessible E-health interventions, to more complex or invasive treatment options such as neuromodulation. In research, the working mechanisms of addictions highlight the important role of a motivational (limbic brain) circuitry which overreacts to addictive stimuli and the diminished functioning of cortical regulatory systems such as the frontal-anterior cingulate circuit. In this presentation, insights on working mechanisms of addiction in the brain will be related to (novel) treatment interventions.
One form of neuromodulation, neurostimulation with repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has effects on craving in substance use disorders. The effects of rTMS on emotion regulation in 40 persons in treatment for alcohol use disorder compared to healthy controls, and the effects of rTMS on the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation (fMRI) will be presented and discussed.

Invitant·e(s): Pierre Philippot, Aurélien Cornil


Mercredi 3 octobre de 11h00 à 12h00
Local : E139

Stimulating the Addicted Brain. Effects of combined tDCS and cognitive training as a treatment for alcohol dependent inpatients.
Tess den Uyl
, University of Amsterdam

Automatically triggered responses to alcohol are potentially relevant for various stages of addiction and have been studied broadly. Retraining these processes with cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) paradigms might be a relevant add-on to treatment of alcohol use disorders. In our research we have tried to enhance effects of CBM by combining it with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. TDCS is a brain stimulation technique that could influence cortical plasticity, and thus was hypothesised to enhance learning retention of the training. We have performed a study with heavy alcohol users and have done two clinical trials with different types of CBM (approach bias modification & attentional bias modification). We also inverstigated electrophysiological responses towards alcohol with EEG and ECG. We only found small beneficial effects of tDCS on the training, thus concluded that the investigated combination was not particulary effective, however, since tDCS reduced relapse one year later this technique still has promise for future research.

Invitants : Pierre Maurage et le LEP


Mercredi 26 septembre à 14h00
Salle du conseil A224

Exploring the role of spatial frequencies for scene recognition.
Carole Peyrin, Université de Grenoble

Theories on visual perception agree that scenes are processed in terms of spatial frequencies. Low spatial frequencies (LSF) carry coarse information whereas high spatial frequencies (HSF) carry fine details of the scene. In this talk, I will first discuss a series of behavioural and neuroimaging studies that explore how rapid processing of LSF would activate plausible semantic interpretations of a scene and guide the subsequent processing of HSF. Furthermore, central vision encodes more fine-detailed and higher spatial frequency information in Comparison to peripheral vision, which encodes coarser and lower spatial frequency information. There is evidence that the processing of spatial frequencies is retinotopicallly organized from the retina to the cortex. In addition to neuroimaging studies on healthy subjects, patients with retinal disorders constitute pathological models which enable the specific investigation of a retinotopic mapping through the relationship between the position of the lesion on the retina and the processing of spatial frequencies. In this talk, I will specifically explore the relationship between a central retinal damage (age-related macular degeneration) or a peripheral retinal damage (glaucoma) and the processing of spatial frequencies during scene categorization. This talk will finally highlight the importance of peripheral vision for generating predictions about the nature of a visual scene and influence central vision.

Invitante : Valérie Goffaux


Vendredi 21 septembre à 11h00
Local E139

What do autobiographical memory disorders in schizophrenia tell us about patients’ disorders of self?
Fabrice Berna, 
Université de Strasbourg

What do autobiographical memory disorders in schizophrenia tell us about patients’ disorders of self? Cognitive model and therapeutic implications. Disorders of self are regarded as core symptoms of schizophrenia. As autobiographical memory (AM) represents a crucial ground for the self, investigating AM provides a unique way to better understanding the cognitive mechanisms of these alterations. Several studies demonstrated patients’ difficulty to mentally travel in time and to re-experience the person they were in past events. These findings point to alterations of the experiential component of self. Other studies showed that patients were impaired in their capacity to reason about past events and to find out the meaning of these events, this pointing to a weakness of the narrative self. Altogether, these results led us to the hypothesis of a dysconnexion between the self and autobiographical memories in schizophrenia. This dysconnexion would be the consequence of altered executive processes linked to the self, this affecting the balance between cognitive and affective processes. The therapeutic implications of the findings will be finally discussed.

Invitants : de Timary Philippe et Vermeulen Nicolas


Mercredi 19 septembre à 12h00
Local D325

Gendered barriers and fences: How social norms influence our choices and experiences in work and family.
Loes Meussen
, KULeuven

Gender inequalities persist in today’s societies, with unequal participation of men and women in work and family domains. So far, most research has sought to explain and decrease the underrepresentation of women at work. The current presentation shifts focus to the three other quadrants of the gender x work-family spectrum: We study the underlying processes that drive the under-participation of men in the family domain, as well as the over-participation of men in the work domain and women in the family domain.
We outline how gender norms present barriers for men’s involvement in family tasks and fence men in the work domain and women in the family domain; influencing men and women’s choices and work-family balance experiences.
Moreover, we show how gender norms may change over time through relational dynamics in heterosexual couples.

Invitantes : Moïra Mikolajczak, Isabelle Roskam


Jeudi 13 septembre de 14h à 15h
Salle E241

Feast your eyes - Food-related attention and eating behaviour across the weight spectrum
Jessica Werthmann
, University of Freiburg, Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Germany

Abstract: Healthy eating behaviour is essential for a healthy weight and this is an important topic, particularly against the backdrop of the high prevalence of obesity and the individual and societal impact of eating disorders. Recently, a surge of research has tested if attention bias for food is related to eating behaviour and body weight. It has been argued that an attention bias for food could be a cognitive factor contributing to overeating and weight gain. However, attention bias for food has also been implicated as potential cognitive factor contributing to restrictive eating behaviour in Anorexia Nervosa. In my talk, I will review the empirical evidence for the role of food-related attention for eating behaviour, obesity and Anorexia Nervosa. My focus lies on elucidating methodological challenges when measuring attention bias for food cues and on highlighting potential clinical implications of this research.

Keywords: Attention bias, Eye-tracking, Eating Behaviour, Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa

Invitants : Olivier Luminet, Olivier Corneille, Stephan Van den Broucke


>Archives des séminaires IPSY