Seminar agenda (Persons from outside the IPSY institute are invited to contact the seminar organizer)
Agenda des séminaires (Les personnes extérieures à l’institut IPSY sont invitées à prendre contact avec l’organisateur·trice du séminaire)
Mercredi 18 novembre à 12h30
Comment aider les élèves à apprendre en réduisant les exigences superflues ?
Professeur André Tricot, Université de Toulouse (France)
Le séminaire sera précédé d’un lunch avec sandwiches à midi
Inscriptions au plus tard le mercredi 11 novembre : firstname.lastname@example.org
Apprendre à l’école demande des efforts : il faut être attentif, se concentrer, réfléchir. Pour certains élèves, comme pour nous tous dans certaines situations, ces efforts sont parfois hors de portée. La théorie de la charge cognitive a pour objectif d’identifier des moyens d’optimiser les ressources cognitives des élèves lors d’apprentissages scolaires. Ces moyens consistent essentiellement à supprimer les informations non-pertinentes dans la situation scolaire et à concevoir la tâche la moins exigeante possible, pour maintenir des exigences là où elles sont importantes : l’apprentissage de connaissances. Depuis une trentaine d’années, les travaux dans ce domaine ont identifié 15 techniques qui permettent ainsi d’aider les élèves à apprendre. L’objectif de cette conférence est de présenter cette approche et ces quinze techniques. A la fin de la conférence je présenterai quelques résultats qui montrent que le temps aussi est une ressource pour apprendre, et que nous pouvons l’optimiser.
Invitant.es : B. Galand et S. Colognesi
Date to be specified
Mental State Inference as a Gating Mechanism to Cognitive and Affective Processes
Lasana T. Harris University College London
People flexibly infer mental states—think about the minds of others. This spontaneous psychological process imbues social targets with full humanity, or denies them full humanity when withheld. Mental state inferences can trigger or inhibit other psychological processes, including logical reasoning, learning, economic valuation, and empathic responses. Here, I discuss behavioural and brain evidence for this gating mechanism across economic and legal contexts. Specifically, I discuss research where people are commoditised, tortured, or engaged in collusion, and highlight the influence of mental state inferences on cognitive and affective psychological processes.
Invited by: Pierre Maurage, Stéphanie Demoulin, Florence Stinglhamber
Thursday, May 28 - 10 am
Childhood adversities, interoception and emotion regulation in alcohol use disorders
Andrzej Jakubczyk & Maciej Kopera, Université de Varsovie (Pologne)
Childhood adversities, interoception (the way one perceives internal, somatic stimuli from the body) and emotion dysregulation have been all linked to the risk of development and course of alcohol use disorders (AUD). During the session, associations between all these factors will be discussed basing on recent findings from the study performed at the Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw. Specifically, dr. Jakubczyk will present on how interoceptive accuracy and sensibility may affect emotion regulation and how resilience to pain (specific interoceptive stimulus) may mediate the association between childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation. Dr. Kopera will present results of two studies on different (clinical and non-clinical) populations. The first study was aimed at investigating if the presence of risky alcohol use during the developmental age would influence the relationship between childhood adversity and mental states recognition in early adulthood. The second study assessed, whether the transgression from risky alcohol use to AUD would influence the trauma-mentalization relationship in another treatment seeking AUD sample. Results of all presented studies will be discussed in the context of possible clinical implications for treatment of AUD.
Invited by: Pierre Maurage & LEP
Mardi 3 mars de 11h00 à 12h30
Local : E139
Forces et faiblesses du modèle de l'alternance en formation
Jean-Luc Gurtner, Université de Fribourg (Suisse)
La fréquentation alternée de lieux de formation différents est une caractéristique constitutive de très nombreux systèmes de formation professionnalisante. Ainsi on n'imaginerait plus une formation à l'enseignement, une formation technique ou une formation dans le domaine de la santé sans périodes de pratique professionnelle ou sans cours théoriques.
Malgré son usage très répandu, un tel modèle peine cependant souvent à dépasser la simple succession de temps d'école et de temps de terrain plus ou moins longs, plus ou moins récurrents, sans grande articulation.
Certes, on rencontre volontiers dans les programmes de formation des espaces dévolus à cette articulation, nommés tantôt analyses de pratiques, séminaires d'intégration, unités d'articulation théorie-pratique, ateliers de préparation au stage, etc, mais ce qu'on y fait réellement dépend grandement de la personne qui en a la charge et reste souvent très général et très peu relié aux expériences et aux situations réelles de chaque apprenant. Divers outils comme le rapport de stage, le dossier de formation ou le portfolio professionnel, par exemple, permettent également de rapatrier dans l'autre lieu une synthèse des expériences faites "de l'autre côté". Mais le statut ambigu de ces outils – support de réflexion ou objet d'évaluation – conduit bien souvent les apprenants à les utiliser de manière peu productive pour les apprentissages ultérieurs.
Au niveau théorique enfin, différents concepts et métaphores ont été proposés pour qualifier les enjeux et les attentes liées à la situation d'alternance et aux apprentissages en contextes multiples, tels que "connectivity", "boundary crossing", "expansive learning", etc...
Dans mon intervention, je développerai la thèse que l'exploitation de métaphores s'avère une démarche prometteuse pour réfléchir à la situation d'alternance mais qu'on peut et doit aller beaucoup plus loin dans cette recherche si l'on veut exploiter au mieux tout le potentiel de l'alternance comme modalité d'apprentissages complexes.
Invitant·tes : Benoît Galand, Noémie Baudoin
Thursday, April 30 - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224
Neural Processing and Perception of Speech in Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Axelle Calcus, Laboratoire des Systèmes Perceptifs, Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris, France)
Mild (21-40 dB HL) or moderate (41-70 dB HL) sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) can lead to persistent changes to the cortical processing of speech sounds. This was evidenced in a recent study conducted on 46, 8- to 16-year old children with MMHL and 44 normally- hearing (NH) age-matched controls (Calcus et al., 2019). While present in younger children with MMHL, there was no significant MMN in older children with MMHL. However, to date no studies have examined speech processing at the subcortical level in children with MMHL, yet this is known to be linked to speech perception in noise (SIN) in NH children. Moreover, the effects of amplification on the neural encoding of speech remain poorly understood, with previous data suggesting a benefit at the subcortical but not the cortical level.
Here, I will present a study aiming to investigate (1) the subcortical and cortical processing of speech sounds in children with MMHL, (2) the relation with SIN, and (3) the effects of amplification on the neural processing of speech, for children with MMHL. Behavioural thresholds were measured at 70 dB SPL for consonant identification in both steady and fluctuating noise. Subcortical and cortical EEG activity evoked by speech stimuli were simultaneously recorded in 18, 8- to 16-year old children with MMHL and 15 age-matched NH controls. The frequency-following-response (FFR) and MMN were used as indeces of speech processing at the subcortical and cortical levels, respectively. For the MMHL group, stimuli were presented both unamplified (70 dB SPL), and with a frequency-specific gain (without compression) based on their individual audiograms. Behavioural thresholds were poorer for children with MMHL than NH controls, whatever the background noise. At the subcortical level, children with MMHL showed a smaller FFR than NH controls’ in the unamplified condition. With simulated amplification, the FFR of the MMHL group was comparable to that of NH controls. However, the relationship between subcortical encoding of speech and SIN was not significant. At the cortical level, there was no significant MMN in children with MMHL presented with either unamplified or amplified speech.
The neural processing of unamplified speech may be impaired at both subcortical and cortical levels in children with MMHL. Moreover, amplification may benefit auditory processing at subcortical but not cortical levels in this group. I will offer two alternative explanations for our findings: increasing multi-sensory integration at successive levels of the auditory system, and/or later maturation of the auditory cortex compared to the inferior colliculus.
Invited by: Olivier Collignon, Ceren Battal
Thursday, February 20 - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224
A novel framework for the neural organization of action and object knowledge
Moritz Wurm, Trento University
How is knowledge about things and events in the world organized in the brain? Popular theories suggest a major division between occipitotemporal and frontoparietal cortex in representing object and action information, respectively. Here I challenge this view by taking a closer look at the neural pathway of action recognition and understanding: In a series of fMRI-based MVPA studies, I show that critical levels of action representation – from basic perceptual action precursors (such as body movements toward different types of entities) to perceptually invariant representations of action meaning – can be localized in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) rather than frontoparietal areas. Moreover, the representational organization of actions in LOTC follows salient semantic principles and appears topographically aligned with related object representations. Based on these findings, I propose an updated model of knowledge organization in occipitotemporal cortex.
Invited by: Gilles Vannuscorps
Thursday, February 20 - 11 am
Room: Socr 27
Understanding Subjectivity in the Age of Superdiversity: Lessons from London and Beirut
Nikolay Mintchev, University College London
The nature of cultural and ethnic diversity is changing in many cities across the globe. Migration flows from multiple parts of the world, as well as histories of sustained arrival and settlement over decades, have led to a proliferation of difference in urban social fabrics. This has produced social patterns of ‘superdiversity’, characterised by multiple ethnic/cultural differences, as well as differences in class, immigration status, religion, language, and political orientations that cut across cultural identity. What happens to the subject in such conditions of superdiversity? How does the subject experience itself and others when differences are ubiquitous in everyday life, and when long-established modes of self-other relations are reconfigured? How does the subject navigate the conflicting experiences of everyday superdiversity and the rise of populist politics? Drawing on psychoanalytic theory, ethnographic research and qualitative interview data from London and Beirut, this talk explores new ways of thinking about subjectivity in order to more adequately respond to the changing social realities of the twenty-first century.
Dr Nikolay Mintchev is a research associate at the Institute for Global Prosperity at University College London. He specialises in the themes of ethnic identity and subjectivity in psychoanalysis and the social sciences. His latest publication (co-authored with Henrietta L. Moore) is “Brexit’s Identity Politics and the Question of Subjectivity” (2019) which appears in Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society.
Invited by: Jochem Willemsen
Wednesday February 19 - 1 pm
In Search of Explanations for the Medically Unexplained: Models and Mechanisms of Chronic Somatic Symptom Distress
Michaël Witthöft, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Germany
Chronic somatic symptom distress (as e.g. characteristic of chronic pain, somatoform disorders, and functional somatic syndromes) represents a widespread and disabling clinical condition of transdiagnostic relevance. Compared to other areas of psychopathology (e.g. affective and anxiety disorders), clinical conditions marked by chronic somatic symptoms represent a relatively neglected and poorly understood area. By using correlational as well as experimental methods, we aimed at developing and testing models of chronic somatic symptom distress. Results of taxometric analyses and structural equation modeling favor a dimensional approach and identified a bifactor model as the best fitting model in which the variability of somatic symptom distress is simultaneously explained by a general factor representing a cognitive-affective component of symptom perception and symptom specific factors that reflect sensory aspects of symptom perception. Experimental studies focusing on interoceptive information processing suggest that chronic somatic symptom distress is associated with less accurate cardiac interoception. The results are in line with a Bayesian predictive processing model of chronic somatic symptom distress. Implications for promising novel treatments for patients with chronic somatic symptoms will be discussed.
Invited by: Olivier Luminet, Laboratoire Illuminetti - IGIA (interest group on interoception and alexithymia)
Thursday, February 6 - 1 pm
Room: salle du conseil A224
The untangling the nature of category selectivity in the ventral visual pathway
J. Brendan Ritchie, KULeuven
The end stage of the ventral visual pathway is characterized by a category-based representation of objects. The nature of this category selectivity is ill-understood. Two major factors emerge from the literature.
On one hand, the search for category-selective regions with maximal selectivity has shown the presence of a few such regions for a small minority of categories, such as faces and other body parts (Downing et al., 2016). On the other hand, analyses of the distributed pattern of selectivity across occipitotemporal cortex at large have emphasized the dominance of more encompassing dimensions, in particular the animate-inanimate continuum (Connolly et al., 2012; Kriegeskorte et al., 2008; Sha et al. 2015).
Here we present an experimental paradigm that is designed to dissociate the two hypotheses. Animate stimuli consisted of a single close-up face and full-body image of 24 animals from different biological classes (48 images total). These were contrasted with images of natural objects. We collected data for behavioral tasks including judgments for pair-wise face and body similarity, and similarity to human faces and bodies. The responses from these tasks were used to construct dissimilarity matrices (DM) to perform representational similarity analysis, and compared with DMs constructed from neural responses from ventral pathway regions selective for objects, faces, and bodies measured with human fMRI (N = 15). We found that while the face-body division dominated the organization of the pathway, a weaker animacy continuum effect was also observed. The animacy continuum effect was also preserved when analyzing face and body responses separately.
Invited by: Olivier Collignon, Federica Falagiarda
Mercredi 5 février à 16h30
Why people believe false information despite knowing better
Professeur Christian Unkelbach, University of Cologne (Germany)
Le séminaire sera suivi d’un drink à 18h00
Inscriptions au plus tard le mercredi 29 janvier : email@example.com
The modern world experiences strategic misinformation, fake news, and the apparent loss of belief in traditionally credible sources such as universities. Thus, the question of how and why people believe information to be true is a prominent research topic. I will approach this question from a Brunswikian perspective: Truth is a distal concept that cannot be assessed directly. Instead, people must use cues that may be indicative of information’s factual truth status. I will distinguish between two broad classes of cues, namely informational cues (e.g., knowledge sources, advice) and experiential cues (e.g., familiarity, fluency). The former cues may be misleading; that is, a source may be faulty or advice may be wrong. The latter cues are a priori true; if information feels familiar or is processed fluently, the experience has an inherent truth value. With this assumption, one may explain and predict when and why people believe false information despite knowing better. I will present several experiments that pit these two classes of cues against each other and show that they jointly inform judgments of truth. However, if the cues contradict each other, people still use the experiential cue, even for highly relevant topics and with tangible costs for themselves in an incentivized paradigm. The present framework thereby provides a basis for explaining false beliefs and suggest novel paths for debunking false information.
Invitant.es : O. Corneille,avec O. Luminet, V. Yzerbyt, S. Demoulin
Thursday, February 6 - 11 am
Room: salle du conseil A224
Understanding substance use in adolescence and emerging adulthood: epidemiological and psychometrical perspectives
Stéphanie Baggio, Hôpitaux Universitaire de Genève, Suisse
Substance use initiation and escalation are major health concerns and it is crucial to understand how adolescents start to use substances and how they may progress through the drug course. This presentation will first explain how initiation and escalation of substance use occur and which key features should be targeted to develop efficient preventive interventions. Then, we will focus on screening for substance use disorders, as current screening tools are imprecise and can lead to an overestimation of “addicted” individuals. We will discuss in detail the current issues and future challenges to assess adequately substance use disorders, and in our case, alcohol use disorder. Of critical interest will be the focus on methodological and psychometrical challenges in the measurement of substance use.
Invited by: Alexandre Heeren & Pierre Maurage
Jeudi 30 janvier à 12h30
Social Life in a Dynamic World: The Role of Cognitive Flexibility in Maintaining Social Anxiety
Professeure Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, University of Bar Ilan, Tel Aviv (Israël)
Le séminaire sera précédé d’un lunch avec sandwiches à midi
Inscriptions au plus tard le jeudi 23 janvier : firstname.lastname@example.org
Navigating dynamic and multi-faceted social environment is challenging to many. Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) find such navigation as particularly daunting. Negative evaluations of self and others are postulated to contribute to the maintenance of SAD. Importantly, these evaluations appear to be resistant to change even when inconsistent information is clearly presented. Delineating factors alleviating this resistance may remove key obstacles to treatment effectiveness, and assist in detecting contributors to the maintenance of SA. Cognitive flexibility (CF) is one such factor. A central component of CF is the ability to update beliefs and modify behaviors in response to dynamically unfolding information. I will present research addressing the role of flexibility in SAD using novel learning-based paradigms. In addition, I will present data suggesting that CF in other-evaluations predicts SA-related distress (post-event processing, social behavior) and SA-severity. Exploring CF in the context of dynamic social interactions and its role in the formation, revision, and maintenance of social bonds will be discussed.
Invitant.es : P. Philippot,
avec P. Maurage, A. Heeren, C. Douilliez, S. Agrigoroaei, Ph. De Timary (IoNS)
Thursday, January 30 - 10 am
In control? How emotional and physiological states impact impulsive actions and decisions - the relationship to alcohol use
Aleksandra Herman, Royal Holloway, University of London
Impulsivity refers to both a stable personality trait and a set of behaviours which undergo momentary changes depending on the current circumstances. Impulsivity plays a vital role in daily life as well as clinical practice as it is associated with drug misuse and certain neuropsychiatric conditions. Because of its great health and well-being importance, it is crucial to understand factors which modulate impulsive behaviours. In this talk, I am going to present research using a variety of methods, including behavioural testing, physiological recordings, psychopharmacology and neuroimaging, investigating the role of emotions and physiological arousal as modulators of impulsive actions and decisions in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that changes in internal bodily state are related to behavioural impulsivity level. Staying more attuned to those changes and finding adaptive ways to adjust behaviour according to bodily needs might be vital to reducing impulsivity levels. I will also discuss how it might be relevant to alcohol use initiation and progression.
Invited by: Pierre Maurage & LEP
Monday, January 13th - 11 am
Multifamily group therapy: An excellent tool for recovery
Gilbert Lemmens, Ghent University (Dpt Psychiatry) & Ghent University Hospital, Belgium
Mental disorders have an important impact on families. Parents, children and/or siblings are often burdened by them and different domains of the family functioning are affected. At the same time, the family remains the primary source of support and recovery for the mentally ill family member. But, substantial barriers to involve family members in treatment still exist. Multi-family group therapy may offer a valuable treatment option to create room for the stories of the families living with mental disorders, to increase family resilience and recovery and to offer the families a more central role in treatment. During the presentation current outcome multi-family group research will be discussed. Further, potential therapeutic factors within the family groups and their implications for the clinical practice will be explained.
Prof. dr. Gilbert MD Lemmens is a psychiatrist and family therapist and is head of the Dept. of Psychiatry at the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). He lectures psychiatry and is a trainer in couple, family and systemic therapy at the Ghent University (Belgium).
Moïra mikolajczak, Isabelle Roskam