Séminaires IPSY - IPSY Seminars

Agenda des séminaires (Les personnes extérieures à l’institut IPSY sont invitées à prendre contact avec l’organisateur·trice du séminaire)

2019

This seminar is postponed to a later date!
Local E241 - room E241
Outliers : Why we shouldn’t kill them - How to handle outliers in statistical analysis
Stéphane Rothen, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève

Outliers have the bad habit of generating biased results. Even if it may sound appealing to remove them from the data set to be analyzed, this methods has many flaws. The purpose of this talk is to provide statistical tools able to handle outliers without producing biased estimates. These tools could be gathered under the somewhat weird name of "robust methods".
To make a long story short, robust statistics aims at producing consistent and reasonably efficient estimators or test statistics with stable level and power, when the postulated model is slightly misspecified.
Those methods will be presented first form a theoretical point of view, but briefly - don’t be (too) afraid - and then by specific examples using R.

Invitant : Alexandre Heeren


Tuesday, May 14 - 9:30
Room E139

Bullying and Bystanding: New Insights from a Moral Developmental Perspective
Eveline Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, University of Fribourg

The moral dimensions of bullying have been recognised and researched for more than a decade now. Different theoretical approaches and associated explanations have been used to elucidate the role of (socio-)moral capacities in explaining youths’ involvement in bully/victim problems. Thus, for example, moral judgment, moral emotion attributions, the use of moral disengagement strategies, moral values, and empathy have been included as core variables, both on the individual, and – especially in the case of moral disengagement – the group or collective level. The related theoretical frameworks include the Kohlbergian tradition, with an emphasis on moral judgment; the Neo-Kohlbergian tradition, especially the Domain Theory (e.g., Turiel, Nucci); the Four Component Model of moral action according to Rest and Narvaez, with a focus on moral motivation; Hoffman’s empathy theory; and Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, particularly relating to moral disengagement. However, so far, there is a lack of integrative meta-theoretical frameworks to bring these different strands together. Also, with respect to bystander behaviour, theories of moral development have not yet made any substantial contribution towards explaining the actual genesis of differential reactions in bullying situations. How comes that some children stay passive or go away while others support the bully, while some, if any, help the victim? And, very specifically, why can some children assist the bully while normally not starting any bullying themselves? In my talk I offer a tentative theoretical explanation relating to issues of moral temptation and introduce first empirical evidence to support this explanation.

Invited by: Chloé Tolmatcheff, Benoît Galand


Vendredi 10 mai à 10h00
Local E241

Etude de l'efficacité de la remédiation cognitive avec RC2S dans les troubles du spectre de l'autisme : une étude de cas
Elodie Peyroux, Université de Lyon (France)

Dans les troubles du spectre de l'autisme (TSA), les déficits des processus émotionnels et de la théorie de l'esprit sont centraux pour comprendre les difficultés que présentent les patients dans le champ du fonctionnement social. Dans cette présentation nous détaillerons l'impact d'un outil de remédiation cognitive, le programme RC2S composé à la fois de tâches papier-crayon et de tâches de simulation informatisées, chez un jeune homme de 18 ans souffrant d'un TSA et actuellement étudiant en école d'ingénieur. Ces données fournissent des arguments supplémentaires en faveur des outils thérapeutiques basés sur la simulation relationnelle digitale pour améliorer les capacités de fonctionnement social dans les TSA et ainsi favoriser l'inclusion de ces personnes dans la communauté.

Invitants : Pierre Maurage et le LEP


Professeur Constantine Sedikides, mardi 7 mai à 14h30 (invitant : V. Saroglou)

Le séminaire sera suivi d’un drink à 16h

Salle du conseil A224, Bâtiment Michotte Place Cardinal Mercier à Louvain-la-Neuve

Inscriptions au plus tard le mardi 30 avril : nadine.fraselle@uclouvain.be

  • The Future of Nostalgia

    Nostalgia is a bittersweet, self-relevant, and social emotion. The content of nostalgic accounts features the self as protagonist, albeit embedded with close others into momentous occasions. Also, nostalgic content entails more expressions of positive than negative affect, and depicts redemption than contamination life scenes. Nostalgia has remarkable implications for one’s future. It promotes an approach (vs. avoidance) orientation. It raises optimism, and it does so by boosting social connectedness (a sense of support, belongingness, and acceptance) and subsequently lifting self-esteem.  It increases creativity, and it does by bolstering openness to experience. It kindles prosociality, such as intentions to donate and actual monetary donating. And it promotes intergroup contact. Far from reflecting escapism from the present, nostalgia potentiates a positive, attainable future.


Lundi 29 avril de 12h30 à 14h00
Collège Dupriez, salle D144, Place Montesquieu 2

Objectification au travail : de quoi parle-t-on et comment y faire face ?
Laurent Auzoult-Chagnault
, Université Paul-Valéry Montepellier 3

L’objectification est un phénomène qui rend compte des relations de travail s’appuyant sur l’instrumentalisation, le déni d’agentivité ou la réduction du salarié à un simple attribut le plus souvent physique. La littérature sur l’objectification fait état des conséquences délétères pour la santé au travail ainsi que des facteurs favorisant l’objectification sur lesquels il est difficile d’agir. Après avoir décrit le phénomène, ses principaux antécédents et ses conséquences pour la santé, l’objectif de la présentation sera d’établir à partir de travaux passés ou en cours les variables propres au contexte de travail qui favorisent la régulation du phénomène d’objectification et de ses principales conséquences.

Invitants : Donatienne Desmette, Florence Stinglhamber, CIRTES


Thursday, April 25 1pm
Room: salle du conseil A224

Developing an optimised visuomotor system
Tessa Dekker
, University College London, Institute of Ophthalmology

Navigating the world safely and efficiently is a lot more challenging than it appears, because the signals entering our senses are noisy and ambiguous. Despite these complexities, adult perception is robust and our actions are highly adaptive. We are not born this way - newborn infants have very poor visual and motor skills. However, my recent research uses a combination of model-driven neuroimaging and behavioural psychophysics to shows that it takes the developing system many years - even into the teens - to develop adult-like proficiency at making use of all sensorimotor information in the system; Children as old as 10-11 years do not correctly account for the noise in their system during vision and visually-guided action, so improved visuomotor abilities and reduced risk of accidents at these ages may not just reflect increased precision, but also improved decision-making. I will present some examples of tasks that are substantially affected by this development, and present modelling work that disentangles which processes drive the shift from suboptimal sensorimotor processing in early life to the highly optimised performance of adults. This will allow us to gain unique insight in the crucial building blocks of the Bayesian brain.

Invited by: Valérie Goffaux


Wednesday, April 24 10:00 am
Room: A224 salle du conseil

Learning to lose control: A process-based account of behavioral addictions
José Pérales, Université de Grenade (Espagne)

Psychology and neuroscience of learning have developed a corpus of evidence and theory regarding modes of behavior control. In our view, this corpus should play a pivotal role in defining behavioral addictions. Evidence converges at identifying the transition from goal-directed to compulsive behavior as the core process underlying substance use disorders. We will argue that this also applies to non-substance addictive disorders and propose a restricted definition of behavioral addiction that relies on the presence of behavior-specific compulsivity. Additionally, we will ponder the possibility that some excessive behaviors can become disordered while remaining mostly goal-driven. Based on reinforcement learning models, relative outcome utility computation is proposed as an alternative mechanism by means of which dysfunctional behaviors can override adaptive ones, causing significant impairment. Accordingly, despite our restricted definition of addiction, we will also consider the pros and cons of recognizing as disorders conditions that, even not qualifying as addictions, can cause significant functional impairment. Finally, recommendations will be made regarding the importance of identifying individual etiological pathways to dysregulated behavior, the necessity of accurately profiling at-risk individuals, and the dangers of symptom-based diagnosis. In our view, the validity of these recommendations does not depend on the position one takes in the terminological debate.

Invited by: Pierre Maurage & LEP


Jeudi 11 avril à 12h30
Local : Socr 42

Percevoir autrui comme moral ou sociable, pour quoi faire ?
Antonin Carrier
, Université de Bordeaux

Une des leçons les plus élémentaires émanant de la littérature sur la perception sociale est que la perception sert l'action. Ceci est surtout vrai pour les perceptions sur la dimension "Chaleur". Ainsi aura t-on tendance à approcher une personne sympathique et à éviter une personne antipathique. Or nous savons aussi depuis une dizaine d'années que cette dimension "Chaleur" est composée de deux facettes, la moralité et la sociabilité. Une question s’impose alors : en quoi les perceptions de moralité et de sociabilité servent l’action ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous pensons qu’il est nécessaire de tenir compte de la nature ambivalente de la socialité humaine. L’Homme est un « animal social ». La présence d'autrui est nécessaire à son épanouissement, et son absence problématique. Mais l’Homme est aussi « un loup pour l’homme ». La nécessaire présence d’autrui peut également s’avérer problématique, parce qu’elle peut être synonyme d’exploitation ou de conflit. Nos recherches suggèrent que les tendances à l’action suscitées par les perceptions de moralité et de sociabilité ont pour fonction de répondre à ces deux problématiques. Dans une série d’études corrélationnelles et expérimentales, nous montrons que les perceptions de sociabilité (vs. moralité) donnent naissance à une motivation d’approche affiliative permettant de répondre à la problématique de l’absence d’autrui. Au contraire, les perceptions d’immoralité (vs. asociabilité) donnent lieu à une motivation d'évitement dont la fonction est de répondre à la problématique de la présence d’autrui.

Invitants : Marine Rougier, Vincent Yzerbyt


Thursday April 4th 13:00
Salle du conseil A224 - Council room A224

Reading the properties of the written language environment (Language: English)
Teresa Schubert, Harvard University

Learning to read is a statistical learning problem. Fluent readers have knowledge about letters and their relationships to sounds and meaning at multiple levels. In this talk I will focus on the relationship between letters themselves, such as knowing that 'A' and 'E' are vowels, and that 'a' and 'e' are the same letters in lowercase. I will explore what readers know about letters and how they might come to acquire this knowledge based on the text environment. Borrowing methods from distributional semantics, we calculated similarity between all characters (upper and lowercase letters, digits and punctuation symbols) from a large text corpus. This model generated a purely input-driven similarity space that includes divisions previously argued to depend on top-down processing – letter/digit status, case, consonant/vowel status. This type of statistical learning can help explain early divisions between consonant and vowel processing in reading. Furthermore, the learned similarity structure correlates with adult letter recognition behavior. From these results, I will argue that adult readers rely on a rich and continuous measure of similarity between alphanumeric symbols, based on distributed statistical properties.

Invitant : Gilles Vannucorps


Tuesday April 2d 14:15
Salle du conseil A224 - Council room A224

Exploring the Experience sampling method and its use in research and clinical practice from a positive psychology point of view. (Présentation en anglais)
Prof. Dr. Philippe Delespaul, Simone Verhagen, MSc Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health Medicine and Lifesciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Mondriaan Mental Health Trust, Department of Adult Psychiatry, Heerlen, the Netherlands

Background: In the field of psychology, we develop numerous questionnaires to assess psychological factors such as affect and behavior and mechanisms such as coping or stress-sensitivity. These help us in research and clinical practice and have some validity but often miss specificity, because they are generally administered cross-sectionally and provide snapshot information on specific moments in time. At best, this helps us understand underlying vulnerabilities, but often the information is provisional. Most relevant psychological mechanisms are adaptational strategies. They can be understood by describing changing processes over time and in relation to contextual challenges.

Method: The Experience sampling Method (ESM), also known as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a time-triggered random sampling technique using small 1-2 minute questionnaires assessing affect and context. Typically, 8-10 reports are collected each day for at least one week. The situations are representative for mental states in normal living circumstances.

Objective: To understand the paradigmatic shift in psychological assessment from stable underlying vulnerabilities to adaptational processes over time leading to insight in the individual’s vulnerability as well as resilience. Consequently, it is relevant to the field of positive psychology. In the seminar, we will explore the ESM/EMA methodology and its applicability. Illustrative examples will be discussed.

 

The seminar will consist of a theoretical part (60 minutes) and a case example (30 minutes).
After the seminar (16:00 - 18:00), there will be a possibility to arrange individual meetings with the speakers. If you would like to meet the speakers, please contact Marta Walentynowicz for further details: marta.walentynowicz@uclouvain.be

Invitants : Marta Walentynowicz, Olivier Luminet


March 27, 2019 at 17:00
Socrate -240

Chaire Internationale Francqui

The wealth paradox: Economic prosperity, populism and opposition to immigration
Jolanda Jetten (University of Queensland)

Media reports often portray the rising support for anti-immigrant political parties as the logical consequence of economic stagnation and rising unemployment, thereby reinforcing the conventional wisdom that electoral support reflects competition over scarce resources (i.e. ‘realistic conflict’). In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), alongside a rather sudden rise in popularity of anti-immigrant parties, there is now a risk that this conventional wisdom explanation will be further reinforced, thereby overlooking interesting counterfactuals, which show that anti-immigrant parties have been remarkably successful in times of unprecedented prosperity. I will present a series of studies focusing on answering the question when and why economic prosperity hardens attitudes towards minorities. These studies show that anti-minority sentiments can be equally prevalent among the more affluent than among the poor. These effects are particularly pronounced when the broader economic situation is presented as unstable (i.e., economic bubble is about to burst) and when the wealth gap within a society is increasing.

And, in terms of readings, you might consider these:
Mols, F., & Jetten, J. (2017). The wealth paradox: Economic prosperity and the hardening of attitudes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jetten, J. Mols, F., Healy, N., & Spears, R. (2017). “Fear of falling”: Economic instability enhances collective angst among societies’ wealthy. Journal of Social Issues, 73, 61-79.
Jetten, J., Mols, F., & Postmes, T. (2015). Relative deprivation and relative wealth enhances anti-immigrant sentiments: The v-curve re-examined. PLoS ONE, 10(10): e0139156. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139156.

Registration is free but necessary : vincent.yzerbyt@uclouvain.be 
 


Thursday March 21st 01:00 PM
Salle du conseil A224

Promises and challenges of laminar fMRI
Jelle Van Dijk,
Utrecht University & Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging.

The human cortex consists of several anatomically distinct cell layers over a thickness of approximately 2.5-3.5 mm. These layers each fulfil distinct roles in processing information. Commonly used resolutions for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments are in the range of 2-3 mm. Distinct processing within the thickness of the cortex is thus lost in these experiments. With the development of ultra-high field (7 Tesla and higher) MRI scanners, it has become possible to start looking at the organisation of the cortex at sub-millimetre resolution, and to start teasing apart differential processing within the thickness of the cortex.
Here I will discuss the promises and challenges of laminar fMRI and show results from recent experiments in our lab.

Invited by: Jolien Schuurmans, Valérie Goffaux


Vendredi 15 mars à 11h00 - Friday March 15th 11:00
Salle du conseil A224 - Council room A224

Distinct cortical feedback to V1 for contextual scene and object information  (Présentation en anglais)
Matthew Bennett, University of Glasgow

Identifying the objects embedded in natural scenes is an important everyday task for the visual system which relies on recurrent processing between lower and higher visual areas. Previous research reveals that cortical feedback directed to foveal V1 cortex contains information about object stimuli presented in isolation from a background scene. We investigate if feedback is projected to foveal V1 for the case of real-world objects embedded in naturalistic scenes. Participants identified objects or background scenes in images with occluded central and peripheral subsections, allowing us to isolate cortical feedback activity to foveal and peripheral regions of V1. We find a trend  for object information in feedback signals directed to foveal cortex and scene feedback in foveal and peripheral regions. Regardless whether the classification task was directed to objects or scenes, the cortical feedback to the fovea region of V1 was object specific and scene specific, whereas feedback to the periphery was only scene specific. We suggest that retinotopic biases throughout the visual hierarchy provide an organizational scheme for segregated cortical feedback of information about distinct higher level stimuli

Invitante : Valérie Goffaux


Mercredi 13 mars à 14h00
Local E241

A psychological approach to social recognition: The role of respect and self-respect for individuals and society
Dr. Daniela Renger, Social and Political Psychology, Kiel University, Germany

Inspired by recognition theory of social philosopher Axel Honneth (1995), my research revolves around the empirical investigation of equality-based respect and its internalization as self-respect. Together with colleagues I have studied respect, i.e. the recognition as someone of equal worth who is taken seriously, in interpersonal, intra- and intergroup relations. We demonstrated effects on central personal outcomes such as autonomy or life satisfaction, as well as social outcomes such as collective identification or participation. For self-respect I recently derived a definition which was lacking in psychology so far. Self-respect represents a person’s ability to see him- or herself as a holder of equal rights and predicts assertive behaviour when one’s rights are violated. In those studies self-respect was not related to aggressive claim making. It therefore implies a form of entitlement that allows the individual to communicate claims in a socially compatible way. In this talk, I will locate my research findings on respect and self-respect within the overall model of recognition theory.

Invitante : A. Casini


Mardi 12 mars à 12h30 - Tuesday March 12th, 12:30
Auditoire Socrate 40 - Room Socrate 40

The attack of September 11, 2001: Flashbulb memories, collective memory and bearing witness
William Hirst
, New School for Social Research, New York (USA)

Even after substantial delays, people can remember both the details of the event of the attack of September 11, but also where they were when they learned about an event. Building on a 10-year longitudinal study of memories for 9/11, a study of the effects of ageing on flashbulb and collective memories of the attack, and the study of intergenerational transmission of flashbulb memories concerning 9/11, we explore the role of social identity and the functions of flashbulb memories. In particular, we examine the way the presence of a flashbulb memory allows one to give witness to an event that they may not have directly experienced.

Invitant : Olivier Luminet

Le séminaire sera précédé d’un lunch avec sandwiches à midi
Inscriptions au plus tard le mardi 5 mars : nadine.fraselle@uclouvain.be


Lundi 11 mars à 12h30
Dupriez, D144 (séminaire organisé avec le CIRTES)

Social recognition at the workplace: The role of equality-based respect
Dr. Daniela Renger
, Social and Political Psychology, Kiel University, Germany

Recent research on recognition or respect in organizational settings used very different conceptualizations, reaching from achievement-based definitions to definitions based on human dignity. In this talk, I would like to introduce recognition theory (Honneth, 1995) as a framework for studying consequences of (dis)respect at work. Respect defined as the recognition as someone of equal worth who is taken seriously is distinguished from two other forms of recognition, namely achievement-based social esteem and need-based care. In a sample of employees, we studied experienced recognition on these three dimensions from both supervisors and colleagues. Although all three forms of recognition were associated with employees’ autonomy perceptions as well as work satisfaction when regarded separately, taking all three simultaneously into account revealed a unique role of respect from both colleagues and supervisors. My experimental work further demonstrated that high in contrast to low respect from ingroup members increases voice and performance in work groups. I discuss these findings in the context of the workplace with regard to the overall model of recognition theory.

Invitante : A. Casini


Jeudi 28 février à 13h00 - Thursday February 28th 13:00
Salle du conseil A224 - Council room A224

Seeing minds in motion: How is the perception of animacy connected to the rest of the mind?
Ben Van Buren
, KU Leuven

The goal of vision science is to figure out how we see. But perhaps an even more foundational question is: What do we see? Beyondseemingly simple features such as color and shape, recent work suggests that visual processing also extracts properties that are more intuitively associated with higher-level thought – such as the animacy and intentionality. Psychologists have long marveled at demonstrations in which simple moving shapes look alive and goal-directed (e.g. when they appear to be ‘chasing’ each other, or ‘trying’ to satisfy certain goals).However, this phenomenon has often been treated as an isolated curiosity, without a clear relationship to the rest of the mind. In this talk, I will present evidence that the perception of animacy and intentionality is connected to other perceptual and cognitive processes in far richer ways than have been previously imagined – interacting with and supporting several phenomena of perceived eye gaze, and profoundly influencing nearly all aspects of cognitive processing, including goal-directed behavior, memory, attention, and visual awareness. This work collectively shows how processes of social perception can provide a rich foundation for higher-level thought and behavior.

Invitant : Gilles Vannucorps


Jeudi 21 février à 15h30
Salle du conseil A224

Physiological link between alexithymia and psychosomatic diseases (Présentation en anglais)
Michiko Kano, MD, PhDAssistant professor, Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science Behavioral Medicine,Tohoku University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital Psychosomatic Medicine

Alexithymia is a personality construct characterized as difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and limited imaginal capacity. Alexithymia was originally described from clinical observations of patients with classic psychosomatic diseases responding poorly to psychological intervention. Researches have been shown elevated alexithymia in patients with a variety of psychosomatic disorders including functional gastrointestinal disorders and chronic pain conditions. However, the mechanism of this link between the psychosomatic disorders and alexithymia is unclear. Some studies suggest that the altered interoception (the sensation of the internal state of the body) may underlie the link, though the results of the experiments are inconsistent. We have conducted several studies targeting on the physiological changes associated with alexithymia using neuroimaging and hormonal challenge in healthy volunteers and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. I will discuss the possible physiological link between alexithymia and psychosomatic diseases from the perspective of brain response to physiological stimulation, visceral sensation, and neuroendocrine responses.

Invitant : Olivier Luminet


Mercredi 13 février à 11h00
Salle du conseil A224

Sexual objectification beyond the metaphor (Présentation en anglais)
Jeroen Vaes, University of Trento, Italy

Objectification – reducing a someone to a something – represents a powerful and potentially damaging way in which we can see and treat others. Women are often the victim of processes of objectification that occur whenever a woman is reduced to her body or certain body parts losing out on her inner mental life and moral standing. What remains unclear is the extent to which a woman becomes an object when objectified. Does she actually become similar to a real object or is the object reference a mere metaphor? In the current presentation I will present a set of experiments that tackle this question analyzing both behavioral and neural responses showing that the metaphorical “woman object” is more similar to a real object compared to objectified men or non-objectified women. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the perception of women, when objectified, changes in essence beyond the metaphor making them truly more similar to objects than men.

Invitantes : Stéphanie Demoulin, Tina Chevallereau


Mardi 12 février de 11h00 à 12h30
Local : E139

Conducting Intervention Research: Methodological Considerations about Strategy Instruction in Writing (Présentation en anglais)
Dr. Teresa Limpo, University of Porto

An effective way to boost the writing competence of beginning and developing writers is through strategy instruction. The extent to which writers engage in strategic behaviors is a distinctive difference between skilled and less skilled writers. Less skilled writers rarely display a proactive and systematic use of strategies to regulate cognition, affect, behavior, and contexts. This poor strategic competence might be associated with difficulties in setting goals and action plans to orient writing, a limited repertoire of strategies and scant knowledge about their instrumentality, and emerging negative beliefs about writing and themselves as writers. Importantly, there is now substantial evidence that writing skills can be boosted through explicit instruction. Strategy-focused interventions are particularly suitable to that purpose by enhancing conscious, goal-directed, and effortful processing in writing (Harris & Graham, 2009). In this talk, I will discuss a set of methodological characteristics of writing interventions implementing strategy instruction and present two evidence-based intervention programs targeting planning and self-regulation skills in elementary and middle school children to exemplify how those characteristics can be operationalized in the field.

Invitante : Marie Van Reybroeck


Mardi 22 janvier à 11h00
Local : Socr 24

Social Media and Depression Symptoms: A Time Series Network Analysis (Présentation en anglais)
George Aalbers, University of Amsterdam

The relationship between social media and mental health is controversial. Some studies show that using social media correlates with beneficial outcomes, such as greater self-esteem, but others find that more social media use tends to co-occur with lower well-being. For example, people who spend more time on social media tend to experience higher levels of depression symptoms, loneliness, and stress.

Recent evidence suggests that the effect of social media depends on what people do when they access these platforms. In particular, passive social media use (PSMU) – i.e., scrolling through News Feeds, looking at friends’ photographs – might negatively influence mental health. Thus far, research has shown that PSMU correlates with depression symptoms, but their temporal relationship is unclear.

We examined the link between PSMU and depression symptoms as part of a larger research program: the network perspective on mental disorders. Network theorists propose that mental disorders constitute a causal system of psychological problems, such as symptoms. Viewed from a network perspective, mental disorders develop when the activation of one psychological problem provokes other psychological problems. This perspective hypothesizes, for instance, that depression develops when insomnia triggers fatigue and concentration problems, which cause work-related problems. Such problems might provoke night-time worrying that worsens insomnia.

With this framework in mind, we reasoned: if people experience stronger depression symptoms after passively using social media, then this behavior could be a risk factor for depression. To investigate this, we conducted an experience sampling study in undergraduate psychology students. Using a smartphone app, students (N = 125) reported PSMU, depression symptoms, loneliness, and stress seven times daily for 14 days. Time-series network analysis (multilevel vector auto-regression) revealed statistical associations between PSMU, depression symptoms, loneliness, and stress.

In my talk, I will discuss results from this analysis, and suggest directions for future research on social media effects. I will also devote time to thoroughly introduce the network perspective on psychopathology, and how I hope it will benefit those who suffer from mental disorders.

Invitant : Alexandre Heeren


Mardi 22 janvier de 9h00 à 10h30
Local : Socr 23

L’apport du chien d’assistance chez l’enfant aveugle entre 2 et 3 ans. Etude longitudinale et comparative
Anna Galiano
, Université Lumière Lyon 2

La vision occupe une place importante dans le développement du jeune enfant. Elle est impliquée, entre autres, dans les acquisitions des habilités sensori-motrices, langagières, dans la construction de l’image de soi, de la représentation du monde qui l’entoure, dans les dynamiques relationnelles avec autrui. La survenue d’une déficience visuelle peut engendrer des perturbations développementales si l’enfant ne fait pas l’objet d’une prise en charge précoce et adaptée. Elles concernent trois domaines : le développement des compétences motrices (l’acquisition de la marche, de la motricité globale et fine), le développement des compétences socio-cognitives (l’acquisition du langage et l’utilisation du langage en contexte) et psycho-affectives (les relations d’attachement).
Les observations sur l’enfant voyant indiquent clairement des bénéfices issus de la relation chien-enfant. Ces bénéfices concernent le développement émotionnel, moteur, mais aussi les dynamiques relationnelles dans le cadre des interactions dans et en dehors de la famille. Des études portant sur des enfants atypiques, notamment des enfants avec un trouble envahissant du développement ou avec un retard mental, montrent qu’un médiateur animal peut avoir une influence positive dans le processus de développement de ces compétences. En particulier, ces études s’intéressent au médiateur canin et indiquent que la présence de celui-ci apporte un bénéfice tant à court terme qu’à long terme. Ce bénéfice est observé sur des aspects comportementaux, relationnels et physiologiques (par ex. réduction de stress).
Partant de ces constatations, nous nous sommes intéressés au chien d’assistance et à son apport pour des enfants aveugles de naissance en bas âge. Les premiers résultats issus de la première cohorte seront présentés et discutés.

Invitantes : Mariane Frenay, Marie-Anne Schelstraete, Anne Bragard


Jeudi 17 janvier à 13h00
Salle du conseil A224

Using eye movements and psychophysics to probe aspects of face perception in adults and children
Isabelle Mareschal, Queen Mary University of London

Measuring eye movements when people interact provides a rich source of information: a high-resolution spatiotemporal record of the cognitive and visual processes that guide our behaviour. In a first set of experiments we examined how eye movements reveal important information about people when they look at each other. We recorded people’s eye movements in two different experiments: (1) while they made eye contact with an actor on a screen (akin to a Skype scenario) and (2) while they engaged in “forced” periods of eye contact with another person in real life. In both conditions we found that participants’ eye movements revealed important information about the viewers. In a second set of experiments we used psychophysical methods to measure gaze direction and emotion perception in healthy and atypical adults and children and find subtle impairments that may interfere with healthy social interactions.

Invitante : Valérie Goffaux


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