Séminaires IPSY

Louvain-La-Neuve

Agenda des séminaires (Réservés aux psychologues ou sur inscription pour les non-membres IPSY)

2018


Mercredi 14 mars de 10h30 à 12h45
Local : Socrate 24

Cognitive and metacognitive control in depression.
Brage Kraft
, Clinical Neuroscience Research Group, University of Oslo, Norway

I will talk about my recent research project, which focuses on cognitive control and emotion regulation strategies in depression. Three studies will be presented. The first study examined whether dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs are associated with decreased executive control. In the second study, we evaluated the effect of computerised attention bias modification tasks (ABM) on depression symptoms using a computational network approach. We reanalyzed data from a randomized controlled-trial of ABM in patients with remitted depression, and examined whether ABM changes specific depression symptoms, symptom-to-symptom interactions, or other important aspects of the symptom network. Finally, I will present preliminary analyses from the third study, which is a prospective study of rumination, metacognitive beliefs, and executive control in remitted depression.

Invitant : Alexandre Heeren


Jeudi 22 février de 13h00h à 14h00
Local : Socr -242

What measure(s) most consistently indicate(s) an association between speech perception and reading?
Axelle Calcus, University College London

Over the last 50 years, research in speech and language, cognitive psychology and neuroscience have explored the bases of the phonological deficit attributed to dyslexic individuals. In this talk, I will focus on research that has investigated whether basic speech perception deficits accompany poor reading achievement. If so, might such deficits contribute to difficulties attaining awareness of the phonemic structure of spoken words or impede acquisition of decoding skills? Likewise, might the quality of the phonological representation of the perceived stimulus be less robust and detailed as a consequence? Two classes of perception tasks have been used for the bulk of experiments conducted: measures of categorical perception and speech-in-noise. I will present data from my own research as well as other studies in the field in order to explore the nature of the relationship between speech perception and reading abilities in dyslexic individuals. After reviewing these matters, directions for future research will be considered.

Invitant : Gilles Vanuscorps


Jeudi 25 janvier à 11h00
Local E139

Workers as objects: Other and self-objectification in the work domain. 
Cristina Baldissarri
, University of Milan-Bicocca

This contribution aims to present recent empirical evidence on objectification (i.e., the perception of others as mere objects) in the work domain by considering the two facets of this phenomenon. The first concerns the other-objectification, the process by which workers are objectified by others as a consequence of their work. In particular, in a set of studies (Andrighetto, Baldissarri, & Volpato, 2017) we showed that making key work features (i.e., repetitiveness, fragmentation, other-direction) salient activates laypeople's objectified views of the workers (i.e., perceiving them more as mindless instruments than human beings). The second facet regards the workers, self-objectification, the process by which workers objectify themselves because of their work. For example, in a set of studies (e.g. Baldissarri, Andrighetto, Gabbiadini, & Volpato, 2017), we demonstrated that performing an objectifying activity characterized by these features leads to self-objectification and, in turn, to decreased belief in having personal free will and increased conformity. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings will be discussed.

Invitante : Stéphanie Demoulin


Vendredi 19 janvier à 11h00
Local : E139

Current perspectives of Internet-communication disorder regarding social cognitions and craving reactions.
Elisa Wegmann, University of Duisburg-Essen, Allemagne

Internet-communication disorder (ICD) is considered one type of specific Internet-use disorders and contains the excessive use of online-communication applications such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, or Instagram (Brand et al., 2016). Cue-reactivity and craving are crucial concepts in both substance-use disorder and behavioral addiction research. Additionally, social cognitions such as social connectivity and fear of missing out are assumed to be specific predispositions for using online-communication applications. These concepts have been recently investigated in subjects with specific Internet-use disorders such as Internet-gaming disorder, Internet-pornography-viewing disorder, Internet-shopping disorder, or unspecific Internet-use disorder. Studies are summarized, which present the relevance of social connectivity, and which address behavioral correlates of cue-reactivity and craving for ICD symptoms. Overall, different studies support the theoretical hypothesis that cue-reactivity and craving are mechanisms underlying ICD. It could also be shown that specific social cognitions intervene with cognitive and affective responses to external stimuli. These findings on cue-reactivity and craving as well as the interaction of social cognitions with further cognitive responses in ICD are consistent with the recently suggested Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. It suggests that gratification and reinforcement contribute to the development of cue-reactivity and craving. However, social cognitions and the interaction with affective and cognitive components describe main mechanisms of an ICD. Specifications of the I-PACE model for ICD are discussed.

Invitants : Pierre Philippot, Aurélien Cornil & Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology (LEP)


Jeudi 11 janvier à 13h00
Local E139

Efficacy of metacognitive therapy in improving mental health: A meta-analysis of single-case studies.
Lucien Rochat, 
Université de Genève, Joël Billieux, Université du Luxembourg

Context. Metacognitive therapy and one of its treatment components, the attention training technique are increasingly being delivered to improve mental health. Objective. To examine the efficacy of metacognitive therapy and/or attention training technique on mental health outcomes from single-case studies. Methods. Fourteen studies (53 patients) were included. The d-statistic for multiple baseline data and the percentage change index were used to compute the effect sizes. Results. Metacognitive therapy has a large effect on depression, anxiety, other psychopathological symptoms, and all outcomes together. Effect sizes were significantly moderated by the number of sessions, the severity and duration of symptoms, and patient gender, but not by study quality or attention training technique when used as a stand-alone treatment. At the follow-up, 77.36% of the individuals were considered recovered or had maintained improvement. Conclusion. Metacognitive therapy and attention training technique strongly contribute to improving mental health outcomes. This study effectively informs evidence-based practice in the clinical milieu.

Invitants : Pierre Maurage, Jory Deleuze & Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology (LEP)


 

2017


Mardi 19 décembre à 14h00
Salle du conseil A224

Separating the signal from the noise: some lessons from the replicability crisis in Psychology. Marco Perugini, University of Milan-Bicocca

An important question facing every researcher is to gather empirical evidence allowing them to make correct inferences from results. If an inference is correct, results will be more likely to be replicated. Starting from the replicability crisis in psychology, conditions for replicable results are set out. Basic statistical and methodological concepts are discussed, with an emphasis on the pivotal role of power and precision for correct inferences, and some practical suggestions are presented. Increased attention to methodological and statistical issues should allow researchers to improve the likelihood that a given inference is correct, that is that they are more likely to get it right.

Invitant : Vincent Yzerbyt


Jeudi 14 décembre de 14h00 à 15h00
Local : E241

Le rôle de l'alcool dans le traitement de l'information et la prise de décision en matière de coercition sexuelle. Massil Benbouriche, Wayne State University (Etats-Unis)

De concert avec les modèles de la myopie alcoolique et de la désinhibition pharmacologique, l'alcool est considéré comme un facteur de risque important en matière de coercition sexuelle. Cette conférence a pour but de présenter les résultats issus d'une étude expérimentale (N = 150) portant sur les effets de l'alcool sur (1) la perception des intentions comportementales exprimées par une femme, (2) la perception du consentement sexuel, et (3) les intentions comportementales d?utiliser des stratégies coercitives et de commettre un viol. De manière générale, les résultats indiquent qu'il existe un effet de l'alcool, mais que cet effet est modéré par l'adhésion aux « mythes du viol » et les distorsions cognitives. Par ailleurs, les résultats invitent à une distinction particulièrement intéressante entre des effets d'interaction et l'existence d'effets conditionnels. Alors que les résultats seront discutés à la lumière des modèles théoriques disponibles, une attention particulière sera portée à leurs implications en matière de prévention, notamment primaire et secondaire, de la coercition sexuelle.

Invitants : Pierre Maurage et le LEP


Mardi 12 décembre à 16h00
Local E241

Approches décisionnelles et dilemmes sociaux : études empiriques et proposition d’un modèle intégratif. Lisa Moussaoui, Université de Genève

Ce séminaire porte sur les comportements collectifs pro-sociaux. Il s'agit de comportements tels que le don du sang ou la participation à la lutte contre le changement climatique, pour lesquels la contribution de nombreux individus est requise, alors même qu'ils ne bénéficieront pas directement des résultats de leur effort. Les caractéristiques de dilemme social de ces comportements font qu'ils sont particulièrement difficiles à promouvoir. Les résultats de recherches sur cette problématique comme présente dans les comportements pro-environnementaux suggèrent qu'il apparaît primordial de générer un sentiment d'efficacité vis-à-vis de l'atteinte du but chez les personnes. Ceci n'est généralement pas le cas avec les campagnes actuelles faisant appel à des buts de niveau planétaire tel que "sauvez la planète".
Lisa Moussaoui est docteur en psychologie affilié au Groupe de Recherche en Psychologie de la Santé de l'Université de Genève et chercheur invitée à l'UCL. Elle travaille sur les comportements de santé et leurs déterminants (contexte, croyances, motivation, planification), ainsi que sur la promotion des comportements pro-environnementaux.

Invitant: Stephan Van den Broucke


Mardi 12 décembre de 11h00  à 12h30
Local E241

Harcèlement scolaire et cyber-harcèlement chez les collégiens français : De quoi parle-t-on et comment y faire face ? Natacha Hoareau, Université de Lille 3

Il existe très peu d'études à ce jour en France comparativement aux autres pays, pour mieux comprendre les phénomènes de harcèlement scolaire et de cyber-harcèlement (Blaya, 2013 ; Debarbieux, 2011). De même, malgré la politique claire de lutte contre le harcèlement scolaire en France depuis 2011, aucun programme d'intervention validé scientifiquement n'est proposé aux établissements comme c'est le cas dans d'autres pays européens (Olweus, 1999). Au cours de cette présentation, j'exposerai des travaux de ma thèse qui ont poursuivi comme objectifs d'une part, d'étudier les facteurs (i.e., personnels, psychologiques, familiaux, scolaires et environnementaux) qui amènent les collégiens français à adopter ou non des conduites de harcèlement au sein de l'école, mais également derrière leurs écrans. Et d'autre part, de tester expérimentalement une intervention, sur la base du jeu de rôle, pour évaluer dans quelle mesure la promotion des capacités empathiques des élèves peut diminuer leurs comportements de harcèlement (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2011) et ainsi favoriser un climat scolaire harmonieux.

Invitants : Chloé Tolmatcheff, Benoît Galand


Mercredi 6 décembre de 10h45 à 12h15
Salle du conseil A224

An Anatomy of Compulsions. Christine Purdon, Waterloo University (Canada)

It is given that compulsions are enacted to reduce emotional distress and that the resolution of emotional distress constitutes negative reinforcement for their performance. In leading treatment models of obsessive-compulsive disorder amelioration of the distress evoked by the obsessional concern is emphasized, the thinking being that if the obsession produces no distress the compulsion will become obsolete. However, 20+ years of research on the factors evoking distress over obsessions and introduction of cognitive strategies for managing negative appraisal of obsessions has resulted in absolutely no change in treatment efficacy; our ability to successfully treat OCD is stuck at 50% (when treatment refusal and drop out rates are taken into account), as it was over 20 years ago. This begs the question as to whether there are lacunae in our understanding of the presentation of OCD. Recent research clearly suggests that once a compulsion is enacted a number of self-perpetuating mechanisms can be activated which lead to reduced confidence that the compulsion can be terminated. Meanwhile, there has been scant phenomenological analyses of compulsions. In particular, that compulsions are enacted to reduce distress has been assumed, but not, to my knowledge, actually examined. Recent research from in-lab and diary studies suggests that there is considerably more to compulsions than meets the eye. For example, the expressed goal of a compulsion is seldom to reduce anxiety. Compulsions are also associated with considerable conversational thought, the tone of which is well worth attending to. This talk will present recent data on the phenomenology of compulsions and attempt to make the case for introducing goal identification and modification as an important complement to treatment.

Invitants : Lab. of Experimental Psychopathology & CPS - Troubles des Emotions


Mardi 28 novembre 2017 à 10h00
Local : E241
Social Anxiety in Youth: An Integration of Current Findings and new Perspectives. Anne C. Miers, Developmental and Educational Psychology Unit, Leiden University, Netherlands

In this talk I will present an overview of findings primarily from the Social Anxiety and Normal Development (SAND) study about the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of socially anxious adolescents. These findings will be placed within the context of the key cognitive-behavioral and developmental models of social anxiety disorder from Clark and Wells (1995; 2010), and Spence and Rapee (2016). The importance of peer relationships and peer feedback will be highlighted and used as a backdrop to introduce a new line of research in which the "power of peers" is harnessed in modifying negative cognitions of socially anxious adolescents. Moreover, new discoveries from the network analysis approach to the structure of social anxiety symptoms will be outlined and the merits of this bourgeoning perspective on psychopathology discussed. 

Invitant: Alexandre Heeren


Lundi 27 novembre de 14h00 à 15h30
Local : Socrate 27

Employing Multinomial Processing Tree Models in Experimental Research: An Illustration in the Domains of Attitude Acquisition and Moral Judgment. Prof Mandy Hütter, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

Multinomial Processing Tree (MPT) models constitute one of the most powerful experimental tools to dissociate psychological foundations of judgment and behavior. This talk will be devoted to explicating the preconditions and assumptions of MPT models and illustrate successful implementations of MPT models that advanced theory in various domains of psychology. In so doing I will focus on two social-cognitive domains. The first domain concerns automaticity in attitude acquisition. Specifically, I will present research that dissociates effects of uncontrollable learning from effects of controllable learning in an evaluative conditioning paradigm. The second domain concerns the separation of consequence-driven and norm-driven responses as well as general inaction tendencies in decisions in moral dilemma situations. By the use of these examples, I will illuminate how MPT models can be validated and used as measurement tools in social-cognitive research.

Invitants : Olivier Corneille, Adrien Mierop


Vendredi 17 novembre à 14h00
Local : socrate 26

How to navigate a tempting food environment. Prof. Dr. Emely de Vet, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

Obesity and overweight increased dramatically in the past decades in most countries. Our modern food environment, characterized by an easy accessibility and wide availability of tempting foods, is often held responsible for this epidemic. However, it is not exactly clear how the food environment gets under the skin. People are often considered victims of the food environment they are exposed to, but this view may be too myopic. Individuals make interpretations of the food environment, respond to food environments, navigate the food environment, but also learn from the environment. In this talk I will present our research on how individuals and environments interact in the context of food and eating. I will discuss results from experimental work on novel intervention strategies, such as nudging and temptation exposure.

Dans le cadre du projet "Psyfood" supervisé par Olivier Corneille, Olivier Luminet, Stephan van den Broucke (UCL), Olivier Klein et Axel Cleeremans (ULB)


Lundi 6 novembre à 12h45
Local : E241

Auto-affirmation et préjugés à l'égard des immigrés : le rôle de l'orientation individualiste et des valeurs politiques. Constantina Badea, Université Paris Nanterre

Les immigrés sont souvent perçus comme une menace pour l'identité nationale, ce qui conduit à des préjugés à leur égard. Les objectifs de cette recherche sont (1) de tester le potentiel de la procédure d'auto-affirmation (e.g. se rappeler un succès passé, hiérarchiser des valeurs importantes pour soi) dans la diminution de cette menace identitaire et de ses conséquences négatives et (2) d'examiner les conditions dans lesquelles cette procédure peut s'avérer efficace. Dans deux études expérimentales (Etude 1, Etude 2), les participants appartenant au groupe majoritaire réfléchissent à des valeurs importantes pour eux personnellement (affirmation du soi individuel), pour eux en tant que Français (affirmation du soi collectif) ou pour quelqu'un d'autre (condition contrôle). Ils répondent ensuite à des échelles de menace et de préjugés à l'égard des immigrés. Les résultats montrent que le niveau des préjugés est plus faible en condition d'affirmation du soi individuel par rapport aux deux autres conditions et que cet effet est médiatisé par une moindre perception de menace provenant de l'immigration. De plus, l'efficacité des procédures d'auto-affirmation dépend de caractéristiques individuelles telles que l'orientation individualiste /collectiviste des participants. Les résultats de l'Etude 3 montrent que l'effet de l'affirmation du soi individuel sur les préjugés est plus important chez les participants qui ont un score élevé à l'échelle d'individualisme, alors que l'affirmation du soi collectif s'avère inefficace indépendamment du profile individualiste /collectiviste des participants. Par ailleurs, la concordance entre les valeurs utilisées dans la technique d'auto-affirmation et l'orientation politique des participants (de gauche comme de droite) augmente l'affirmation du soi individuel (Etude 4, Etude 5).

Invitant : Vincent Yzerbyt


Mercredi 11 octobre de 14h00 à 15h30
Local : E139

Le modèle motivationnel du contexte, du soi et des actions s'applique-t-il de la même façon à tous les élèves : le cas de trois études en contexte québécois. Isabelle Archambault, Univeristé de Montréal

Le modèle motivationnel du Contexte, du soi et des actions de Connell et Wellborn suggère que le contexte de classe est au coeur du processus motivationnel menant à l'engagement actif des élèves dans les tâches scolaires. Un tel contexte comprend notamment de bonnes pratiques enseignantes, dont la structure, le soutien à l'autonomie et l'implication. Ces pratiques contribuent aux perceptions de soi positives chez les élèves, soit un bon sentiment de compétence, d'autonomie et d'appartenance à l'école. Bien que ce modèle ait reçu de nombreux appuis empiriques auprès de l'ensemble des élèves, on en sait très peu sur son application auprès des élèves qui présentent des caractéristiques particulières. À travers trois études, notre équipe cherche donc à identifier en quoi les pratiques enseignantes et les perceptions de soi entrent distinctement en jeux dans le développement de l'engagement scolaire de différents groupes d'élèves. À la lumière de ces trois études, il semble que les liens proposés dans le modèle du Contexte, du soi et des actions s'appliquent effectivement aux élèves qui présentent des caractéristiques individuelles divergeant de la norme, mais que ces liens sont plus ou moins importants pour certains groupes d'élèves. Les implications de ces résultats seront discutées.

Invitants : Virginie Hospel, Benoît Galand


Mardi 3 octobre de 11h00 à 12h00
Local E241

Single dose testosterone administration impairs cognitive reflection in men. Gidi Nave, Wharton College (University of Pennsylvenia)

Single dose testosterone administration impairs cognitive reflection in men The sex steroid testosterone regulates reproductive behaviors such as intra-male fighting and mating in non-humans. Correlational studies have linked testosterone with aggression and disorders associated with poor impulse control, but the neuropsychological processes at work are poorly understood. Building on a dual-process framework, we propose a mechanism underlying testosterone's behavioral effects in humans: reducing cognitive reflection. In the largest behavioral testosterone administration study to date, 243 men received either testosterone or placebo and took the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), that estimated their capacity to override incorrect intuitive judgments with deliberate correct responses. Testosterone administration reduced CRT scores. The effect was robust to controlling for age, mood, math skills, treatment expectancy and 14 other hormones, and held for each of the CRT questions in isolation. Our findings suggest a mechanism underlying testosterone's diverse effects on humans judgments and decision-making, and provide novel, clear and testable predictions.

Invitants : Illuminetti labgroup


Jeudi 21 septembre de 14h00 à 15h30
local E139

Empathy, Morality, and the Effects of Violent Video Games. André Melzer, Université du Luxembourg

The effects of violence in video games have been widely investigated (Happ & Melzer, 2014). However, research on whether or not playing violent video games causes adverse effects on aggression and antisocial behavior has led to fierce debates among scientists and in the general public. Findings from the Luxembourg lab on empathy and morality support the notion that the effects of video game violence (VGV) are best understood within a model of risk and resilience factors, including characteristics of medium, player and situation. A first series of studies confirmed the moderating role of empathy (Happ, Melzer, & Steffgen, 2013). When game characters were induced as warm and empathic, game violence was perceived as less justified, irrespective of the morality of the game character. However, empathy had differential effects on hostile perception, depending on character morality. Neutral faces were perceived as less aggressive after playing the Superman character, but more hostile after playing the evil Joker. Inducing empathy also had differential effects depending on the nature of the video game (Happ, Melzer, & Steffgen, 2015). Empathy decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior after a prosocial game (Study 1) or when participants played a positive character in an antisocial game (Study 2). However, empathy increased antisocial behavior and reduced prosocial behavior after playing a mean character in an antisocial game (Study 1 & 2). Regarding the moral implications of VGV, it was found that games that involve violence against humans might pose a threat to one?s moral self (Gollwitzer & Melzer, 2012). This was especially true for inexperienced players, who reported greater moral distress and selected more hygiene products as a symbolic act of moral cleansing than frequent video game players.

Invitants : Pierre Maurage et le LEP


Mardi 12 septembre

Transfer of Training: Recent Theoretical and Methodological Advances. Andreas Gegenfurtner, Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, Germany
The concept of transfer of training describes the application of trained knowledge and skills in workplace situations. Transfer is a multifacted and dynamic phenomenon, which generates a number of challenges for its theoretical conceptualization and its empirical measurement. In addition, transfer of training is influenced by numerous individual, training-related, and situational factors. This talk will offer some of the recent theoretical and methodological advances of research on transfer of training, its antecedents, and consequences. A particular focus will highlight motivational dynamics and technology-enhanced boundary conditions of transfer. In compliment to the doctoral dissertation of Anne Jacot, this talk will contribute to a deepened dialogue of how we can support trainees in their efforts of applying trained knowledge and skills

Invitantes : Mariane Frenay et Isabel Raemdonck


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