Forecasting the outcome of spintronic experiments with Neural Ordinary Differential Equations

Louvain-La-Neuve

Forecasting the outcome of spintronic experiments with Neural Ordinary Differential Equations

Deep learning has an increasing impact to assist research, allowing, for example, the discovery of novel materials. Until now, however, these artificial intelligence techniques have fallen short of discovering the full differential equation of an experimental physical system. Here we show that a dynamical neural network, trained on a minimal amount of data, can predict the behavior of spintronic devices with high accuracy and an extremely efficient simulation time, compared to the micromagnetic simulations that are usually employed to model them. For this purpose, we re-frame the formalism of Neural Ordinary Differential Equations to the constraints of spintronics: few measured outputs, multiple inputs and internal parameters. We demonstrate with Neural Ordinary Differential Equations an accel- eration factor over 200 compared to micromagnetic simulations for a complex problem – the simulation of a reservoir computer made of magnetic skyrmions (20 minutes compared to three days). In a second realization, we show that we can predict the noisy response of experimental spintronic nano-oscillators to varying inputs after training Neural Ordinary Differential Equations on five milliseconds of their measured response to a different set of inputs. Neural Ordinary Differential Equations can therefore constitute a disruptive tool for developing spintronic applications in complement to micromagnetic simulations, which are time-consuming and cannot fit experiments when noise or imperfections are present. Our approach can also be generalized to other electronic devices involving dynamics.

Author information:  Chen, Xing Abreu Araujo, Flavio, Riou, Mathieu Torrejon, Jacob Ravelosona, Dafiné Kang, Wang Zhao, Weisheng Grollier, Julie Querlioz, Damien

Nat Commun 13, 1016 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-28571-7