Although the first dissection of the human ovary dates back to the 17th century, the biophysical characteristics of the ovarian cell microenvironment are still poorly understood. However, this information is vital to deciphering cellular processes such as proliferation, morphology and differentiation, as well as pathologies like tumor progression, as demonstrated in other biological tissues. Here, we provide the first readout of human ovarian fiber morphology, interstitial and perifollicular fiber orientation, pore geometry, topography and surface roughness, and elastic and viscoelastic properties. By determining differences between healthy prepubertal, reproductive-age, and menopausal ovarian tissue, we unravel and elucidate a unique biophysical phenotype of reproductive-age tissue, bridging biophysics and female fertility. While these data enable to design of more biomimetic scaffolds for the tissue-engineered ovary, our analysis pipeline is applicable for the characterization of other organs in physiological or pathological states to reveal their biophysical markers or design their bioinspired analogs.
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