Today, due to the concerns with the current increasing environmental issues and depletion of petro-chemical resources, both academic and industry attach a great importance to the sustainable development. The achievement of this goal could be obtained by changing current working practices and finding greener alternatives. Green chemistry is one of the most important and rapidly growing fields in modern chemistry, and is widely recognized as being important for the development of environmental friendly materials or “green materials.” Among the environmental friendly materials, polymers or their composites which are either biodegradable or bio-based represent an area of strong attention and challenges. To ensure sustainable access to these materials, it is imperative that polymers production aligns with the principles of Green Chemistry. This implies the application of innovative technology to established industrial processes, the development of environmentally improved routes to important products, the design of new green chemicals and materials, the use of sustainable resources, the use of biotechnology alternatives, methodologies and tools for evaluating environmental impacts.