Monday 18 March 2019
14:00 - 17:00
Bibliothèque des sciences et technologies
The objective of the Louvain4Water Seminars is to strengthen the network of researchers and other actors working in the water domain at UCLouvain and identify common actions in this domain.
For this meeting, we are pleased to receive Prof. Chiara Cavalieri (SST/LOCI) who recently joined UCLouvain as Professor at the Faculty of Architecture, Architectural Engineering and Urban Planning (LOCI). Prof. Chiara Cavalieri will give a keynote speech on the language of water.
In addition to this, the Louvain4Water Seminar will offer its members the opportunity to pitch their research works on topics related to water (app. 3 minutes per presentation). Please do not hesitate to contact us through the registration form below if you wish to present your work. The presentation can equally be in French or English.
Keynote by Prof. Chiara Cavalieri (UCLouvain/LOCI) The Language of Water
According to the World Resource Institute, by 2040 waterstress in Belgium will be “extremely high”, when compared to global geographies. Moreover, in Flanders one out of 6 job is related to the subject of water (Vlakwa 2017). If we contextualize these figures within the most recent forecasting of climate change (IPCC 2018), suddenly unfolding water complexity becomes not only a fundamental but also a priority subject. Mapping water is neither a linear nor a generic operation: it requires a close and systemic reading throughout the different spatial, as well as socio-economical and cultural dimensions of water. Water has to be unfolded in its full complexity, not only as a technical matter.
The “Language of Water” is an ongoing project that frames the challenge of visualizing water(s) via a threefold set of mapping operations that, in their process of making, aims to continuously inform each other: the deconstruction of whole water system(s) into a unique catalogue of water elements; the reconstruction of the same elements into synthetic spatial representations of water systems and flows, where quantities and qualities are visualized at once in a synchronic view; the identification of a set of potential territorial water sequences.
Alice Alonso, Marnik Vanclooster(SST, ELI)
Sébastien Petit, Marnik Vanclooster (SST, ELI) - Appui technique et scientifique pour la valorisation et la gestion intégrée et durable des eaux dans les BAs-FONds au BÉnin pour l'irrigation (BAFONBÉ) (abstract)
Prof. Jean-Philippe De Visscher, Cyrille Moukoko Ndoumbé, Stéphane Akoa, Olivier Chadoin (SST/LOCI) - ELOBI Les bas-fonds de Yaoundé (abstract)
Film, en Français, 15 minutes
Les quartiers informels des 'bas-fonds' de Yaoundé, Cameroun concentrent les populations socialement les plus précaires dans des conditions d'insalubrité et d'exposition aux risques naturels graves. La situation est empirée par la prolifération de déchets bouchant les systèmes d'irrigations formels et informels. En saison de pluie, cette situation provoque des inondations importantes. En saison sèche, la stagnation d'eaux usées provoque des dangers sanitaires importants. Face à cette situation, ni les autorités publiques et ni les populations locales ne disposent des moyens et méthodes adéquats.
Le film retrace les résultats d'un premier workshop ayant eu lieu en novembre 2018 à l'Ecole Spéciale Supérieure d'Architecture du Cameroun. Il a comme objectif évident d'être un moyen de sensibilisation au problème. Mais plus fondamentalement, le média "film" est lui-même expérimenté comme un outil de recherche permettant de construire progressivement un dialogue prospectif et collaboratif entre les différents acteurs concernés.
Damien Delforge (SST, ELI) Hydrological connectivity from time series in the Lhomme Karst System (abstract)
This is done conventionally using dye tracing from which connections and transfer times are undeniably revealed. However, single tests do not allow appreciating the dynamic character of the hydrological connections. Nowadays, several methods in data analysis aim at the detection of causal relationships between time series allowing the investigation of long-term dynamics and interactions. Some are designed for linear systems as the simple cross-correlation method or the Granger causality, while others are suitable for nonlinear interactions, such as the Convergent Cross Mapping method.
Here, these methods are applied in order to draw up and compare short-term causal interactions in the Lhomme Karst System in Belgium. The Lhomme Karst System has been monitored since 2013 and many time series are available: meteorological data, soil moisture, drip discharges in the caves, piezometric levels, and local gravimetric time series. The PICO seminar introduces briefly the causal inference methods that are used in this research with some causal mapping examples applied to hydrological data sampled at the Lhomme Karst System.
Anuarite Bashizi (SHS, DVLP) - Les défis liés à l'eau dans les zones à forte compétition foncière et minière en RDC (abstract)
Raphaël Janssens (SST, iMMC) - Removal of anticancer drugs from hospital wastewaters by advanced oxidation processes (abstract)
The presence of anti-cancer drugs in European surface waters indicates that currently applied wastewater treatments are not effective for the removal of persistent compounds. In this work, three advanced oxidation processes (UV, UV/TiO2 and UV/H2O2) were applied first on laboratory grade water and then on real secondary effluent spiked with four anti-cancer drugs at 500 µg/L. Direct photolysis in laboratory water led to degradation rates of 0.191 ± 0.007 1/min for 5-fluorouracil, 0.078 ± 0.005 1/min for capecitabine, 0.047 ± 0.008 1/min for cyclophosphamide and 0.039 ± 0.004 1/min for ifosfamide. Improved removal performances were observed when catalyst was brought in suspension: capecitabine (+37%), cyclophosphamide
(+35%) and ifosfamide (+32%). Regarding chemical oxygen demand abatement, electrical energy per order, operating and environmental costs, the UV/H2O2 process scored best. This technology appears thus to be an efficient barrier against anti-cancer drugs discharge in surface waters.
Raed Fehri, Kim Mens, Slaheddine Khlifi, Marnik Vanclooster - Together4Water: Testing a Citizen Science water monitoring project in Tunisia (abstract)
Citizen Science (CS) has been emerging in the last decade as a new field of environmental monitoring involving a direct collaboration between everyday citizens and scientists. The concept is now also introduced in hydrology.
In Tunisia, several recent governmental efforts aimed at reinforcing the existing official water-related information through the renovation of the Tunisian monitoring systems. However, the lack of reliable hydrological data still an issue. This major point of concern can be partially addressed through a CS approach.
In this study, we present results of the test phase of the Together4Water initiative, a water resources CS project that was launched in Tunisia in 2018. We monitored river flow, rainfall and water quality in a test area of the Medjerda catchment using cost-effective and/or public available sensors. For river flow we used the ‘Discharge app’, for rain simple manual pluviometers and for water quality simplified water quality strips. We used a stepby- step approach to target, to engage and to train citizens on using the monitoring tools and transmitting the data to a centralized online platform. The collected CS data are compared with data from the governmental reference stations. Preliminary results yield a good agreement between CS river flow data collected at two sites (Slouguia and Medjez) and the reference stations (correlation coefficient R ranges between 0.8 and 0.97 for all citizens).
For rainfall, measurements collected by citizens in eight locations correlate well with reference data (R ranges between 0.95 and 0.98). Finally, CS water quality data (PH, NO3, NO2, KH, GH and Cl2) are also consistent with the laboratory measurements (R ranges between 0.75 and 0.8). In addition, uncertainty of the CS data are compared with the uncertainty associated with the official governmental data. We conclude that the Together4Water CS test phase delivered a consistent hydrometrological data set. The variability between the citizens’ measurements can be explained by many factors such as the location of pluviometers for rainfall observation, the wind and light reflection for river flow measurement using Discharge app, and colors identification for the water quality strips. The CS approach is considered promising to complement existing Tunisian monitoring systems, and also to enhance innovation, adaptation, and local capacity building in the Tunisian water sector.
Kadir Mokrane , Marnik Vanclooster, Damien Delforge - Exploring causes of hydrological alterations in the Medjerda River basin, Algeria (abstract)
The Mediterranean area is considered to be a hotspot for climate change. This will have a considerable impact on hydrologic and ecosystem services of Mediterranean catchments.
Due to complicated interconnections in the hydro-meteorological system, quantifying the influence of individual factors on streamflow alteration remains challenging. In this study, we explore the causes of hydrological alteration within the Tunisian-Algerian transboundary basin of the Medjerda and we extract factors that dominate streamflow alteration. This basin covers
23 700 km2 of which 7 870 km2 are in Algeria, or 32% of the total area.
Reference hydrometrological data in the basin are collected and provided by the local authorities. The data base is enriched with generic time series on evapotranspiration, temperature and NDVI, inferred from the Google Earth Engine cloud-based platform.
Nonlinear time series analysis tools (convergent cross mapping, CCM) are implemented to quantify the causality of individual factors on streamflow.
The results proved that the CCM method is able to detect quantitative influences of individual factors on streamflow, and to discriminate the role of climate factors (rainfall, evapotranspiration, temperature) from other environmental factors (e.g. land use related NDVI) on hydrological alterations. Understanding the individual role of factors on hydrological alteration is essential for designing appropriate water management adaptation programs in this water stressed basin.
Bibliothèque des Sciences et Technologies
Place Louis Pasteur 2